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Links to Studies and Statistics

Studies and Statistics

INTRODUCTION

This is an annotated directory of statistical studies pertinent to the field of community arts. We have concentrated here on studies with empirical findings — studies based on surveys that use (but are not necessarily limited to) quantitative methods. Each citation is annotated with a description of the study, its author(s) and publishers(s), dates, general uses, major findings and a link to its location on the Web. This list was initiated for CAN by scholar Laura Smyth in 2004. It will continue to grow.

If you have authored or published or contributed to or used — or even heard about — a study you think belongs in CAN's Studies & Statistics, we'd love to hear from you. If you can, let us know what you think is useful about the study you are mentioning. Scroll to the bottom of this page for instructions and a form.

LISTINGS

A Measure of Culture
Study tracking cultural activities in New Zealand to guide cultural policy that would support a thriving culture and a strong cultural identity, particularly of the Maori heritage. Statistical framework divides cultural activities in N.Z. into nine major categories, and organizes data around creators (artists), organizations (producers and distributors), products (cultural goods and services) and consumers (individuals or organizations). Written, published by Cultural Statistics Programme, Statistics New Zealand, 2002.

A New Framework for Building Participation in the Arts
Study commissioned by RAND Corporation; "examines why people become involved in the arts, how arts organizations can influence their participation, and what lessons can be learned from leaders in the field." Contains data from organizations interviewed and a detailed explanation of the framework. Written, published by RAND Corporation, 2001.

A Portrait of the Visual Arts: Meeting the Challenges of a New Era
Study suggesting that the visual arts picture isn't as rosy as it first appears, despite record museum attendance, booming commercial popularity, soaring prices for artists' work and well-publicized museum expansions. Conflates "community involvement" with marketing. Written by Kevin F. McCarthy, et al. Published by RAND Corporation, 2005.

Above Ground: Information on Artists III: Special Focus New York City Aging Artists
First needs assessment of aging artists in New York City, researching how artists are supported and integrated within their communities and how their network structures change over time. Finds that they rank high in life satisfaction and self-esteem; 91% would choose to be artists again; 77% communicate daily or weekly with other artists; they're resilient and have an ongoing engagement with both their life and art. Written, published by Research Center for Arts and Culture at Teachers College, Columbia University.

Academic Atrophy: The Condition of the Liberal Arts
First significant study of how the No Child Left Behind Act is influencing instructional time and professional development in key subject areas. Finds that schools spend more time on reading, math and science, squeezing out social studies, civics, geography, languages and the arts. Report, funded by Carnegie Corporation of N.Y., is based on survey of 1,000+ principals in four representative states (Indiana, Maryland, New Mexico, and New York). Written, published by Council for Basic Education, 2004). The Council of Basic Education closed its doors in June 2004; this .pdf file is now on the site of the Education Commission of the States.

After-school Arts Enrichment
Resource brief on performing arts program at Community Education Resource Center (CERC) at M.S. 67 Queens, N.Y., as example of effective after-school arts enrichment. Reviews consistent participation, inclusiveness, opportunities for student input, leadership, support within the school community, staff teamwork and curriculum. Written by Policy Studies Associates, Inc.; published by The After-School Corporation (TASC), 2001.

American Fact Finder
Created to search census data and statistics by community, by region, by sector and more. Makes it easy to pull data to create a detailed profile of a community, including some arts data. Written, published by U.S. Census Bureau, 1997-.

An Evaluation of an Arts Program for Incarcerated Juvenile Offenders
Three-year study on recidivism and violent-incident rates in "A Changed World," an intensive art program at a juvenile facility. Found positive outcomes. Written by Mark Ezell and Michelle Levy, published by Journal of Correctional Education, 2003.

An Evaluation of the Arts-in-corrections Program of the California Department of Corrections
Often-cited 1983 cost-benefit report on the AIC program. Finds that society and institutions in the study benefited by significantly reduced rates of behavioral-code violations; prison racist incidents were lowered, rate of recidivism declined sharply, cooperation with staff and family increased. Estimates that the program's $162,790 cost generated benefits worth $228,522 in the four prisons studied. Written by Lawrence Brewster, published by William James Association, 1983 (posted on Web 2007; downloadable as .pdf file).

ArtistFacts
Compendium of statistical information gathered from research conducted on artists over past couple of decades. Statistics include employment, financial, healthcare, and education backgrounds for individual artists. Written, published by Research Center for Arts and Culture, 2003.

Artists, Musicians and the Internet
Study showing artists and musicians are enthusiastic Internet users and they believe the Internet helps them make and sell their work, gain inspiration, build community with fans and fellow artists, and pursue new commercial activity. By Mary Madden (Pew Internet & American Life Project, Pew Charitable Trusts, 2004).

Arts & Economic Prosperity III: The Economic Impact of Nonprofit Arts and Culture Organizations and Their Audiences
Describes itself as "the most comprehensive study of the nonprofit arts and culture industry ever conducted." Documents the economic impact of the nonprofit arts and culture industry in 156 communities and regions (116 cities and counties, 35 multi-county regions, and five states), and represents all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Available: print brochure, print summary report, print full report and package. Web features: PowerPoint presentation, sample opinion-editorial about the study, toolkit. Written and published by Americans for the Arts, 2007

Arts & Health: An International Journal of Research, Policy and Practice
Official journal of the Society for the Arts in Healthcare, published by Routledge. Edited by Prof Stephen Clift and Paul Camic of Canterbury Christ Church University and Prof Norma Daykin of the University of the West of England. Takes a broad-based approach in examining uses of the arts in public health, health promotion and healthcare. Publishes empirical research, policy analysis, theoretical discourse, systematic reviews and examples of best practice. Founded 2009.

Arts Education Improves Workforce Development and Student Success
Study showing how arts shape 21st-century working skills. Documents positive outcomes of integrating arts into K-12 education and youth intervention programs. Case studies, examples of successful programs, research citations, useful quotes. Written, published by NASAA, National Governors Association and NEA, 2002.

Arts Education: A Special Collection of Case Studies
Collection of 67 case studies that "reveals the lessons, benefits, and pitfalls of existing and past projects, providing vital information for program staff at organizations running their own Arts Education projects." Contributors include Americans for the Arts, the Arts Education Partnership, CAPE, Arts for All, Hospital Audiences and many more. Edition of online bimonthly publication CloseUp, published by IssueLab, June/July 2009.

Arts and Culture in the Metropolis: Strategies for Sustainability
Monograph recommending that arts sectors in big cities create a strong local agency to coordinate cultural activities and help make arts an integral part of each community. Recommends that civic leaders make cultural institutions a vital component of community economic development and neighborhood revitalization strategies. Based on study of 11 big U.S. cities. Written by Kevin F. McCarthy, Elizabeth Heneghan Ondaatje, Jennifer L. Novak; published by RAND Corporation, 2007.

Arts and Culture: Community Connections - Contributions from New Survey Research
Brief focuses on strong connection between cultural and civic participation. Exidence on how commonplace community connections (social, family, religious) create new opportunities for cultural organizations to build participation. One of several Urban Institute policy briefs that spotlight themes in "Reggae to Rachmaninoff: How and Why People Participate in Arts and Culture" (a study that draws on evidence from the Urban Institute's evaluation of the Wallace Foundation's Community Partnerships for Cultural Participation initiative). By Chris Walker (Urban Institute and Wallace Foundation, 2002).

Arts and Non-Arts Partnerships: Opportunities, Challenges and Strategies
Study (surveys and interviews) of partnerships supported by Community Partnerships for Cultural Participation Initiative, funded by Wallace Foundation 1998-2002. Included non-arts partners from educational, religious, youth development, human services and community development sectors. Findings: arts groups benefits were greater public credit for community involvement, connections to new communities of potential participants, and wider opportunities to carry out creative work; non-arts groups benefits were better programs and a reputation for being more effective in their community work. By Christopher Walker (Urban Institute, 2004).

Arts at the Core: Every School, Every Student
The "Illinois Creates" survey. Finds broad disparities in levels of arts education offered in Illinois schools, and discrepancy between desire of superintendents and principals to offer quality arts education and their ability or determination to do so. Written by Metro Chicago Information Center; published by Illinois Arts Alliance/Foundation.

Arts in Criminal Justice Settings: Research and Evaluation
15-case study evaluations of arts programs working with offenders in U.K. Shows correlation with reduction of neighborhood crime, and lower recidivism rates among participants. Written, published by The Unit for Arts and Offenders, 2003.

Arts in Education Policy
Policy site by Education Commission of the States. Includes What States Are Doing, Selected Research & Readings, Programs & Practices, Evaluation and Web links. Issue Breakouts: Availability, Economic Development, Standards & Assessment. Has an Artscan Policy Database on policies that support arts in education in all 50 states. Plenty of research profiles.

Arts, Cultural, and Humanities Organizations in the Rhode Island Economy, Report Summary
Shows $241.2-million impact of arts on the state. Proves the arts a win-win investment for the state when combined with intensive community investment (millions of performance and volunteer hours), impact on tourist industry, and increase in indirect audience spending in places like downtown Providence. By Gregory Wassall (New England Foundation for the Arts, 1996).

Champions of Change: The Impact of the Arts on Learning
Publication presenting recent studies that demonstrate the link between involvement in the arts, positive youth development and academic achievement. Research conducted in in-school and out-of-school settings via quantitative/qualitative methods. Figures, statistics, stories, theories. Researchers include James Catterall, Shirley Brice Heath and Steve Seidel. Written, published by Arts Education Partnership and the President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities, 1999.

Chicago Arts Partnerships in Education: Summary Evaluation
Study using multiple assessment tools including student achievement, measures of community and school support, and teacher and student surveys to examine success of CAPE. Conducted by the Imagination Project, program of UCLA graduate school of education. Found that over six years CAPE had high impact on classroom, teachers and artists, on student performance, and on level of support from community and school-based groups. By James S. Catterall and Lynn Waldorf (In Champions of Change, the Arts Education Partnership and the President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities, 1999).

Choreographing Community Sustainability: The Importance of Cultural Planning to Community Viability
Research project in which issues, trends, planning infrastructures, partnerships and resources critical to the evolution of community sustainability were reviewed in literature and discussed in a focus group and in interviews with municipal cultural practitioners in British Columbia and Ontario who were members of the Creative City Network of Canada. Summary include key points that emerged in both, plus recommendations. Written by Kat Runnalls; published by Centre of Expertise on Culture and Communities , 2007.

Clusters of Creativity: The Role of Arts in North Carolina's Economy
Study documenting how private-sector creative workers contribute to communities across N.C. and how the arts serve as a catalyst for tourism, inspiring unique products and partnerships. Written by Regional Technology Strategies, Inc.; published by N.C. Arts Council, 2007.

Combining Bibliotherapy and Positive Role Modeling as an Alternative to Incarceration
A study evaluating Changing Lives Through Literature, a "bibliotherapy" program designed as an alternative to jail. Follows-up the first 32 men to complete the program; matched comparison with group of 40 probationers. Indicates a reconviction rate of 18.75% in the study group, compared with 45% in the comparison group. Includes information from interviews with program participants. Written by G. Roger Jarjoura and Susan T. Krumholz; published in Journal of Offender Rehabilitation (Vol. 28 (1/2), 1998, Pp. 127-139) by Hawthorn Press, 1998.

Connecting Californians: Finding the Art of Community Change
Study exploring story as a powerful means of building community. Based on a ten-month public conversation at the intersection of the arts, the humanities, grassroots narrative and community organizing. Presents findings of inquiry, case studies, map of the field, monographs, focus-group transcripts, literature review, questions for the future and a potential program design. Written by Dudley Cocke, Craig McGarvey, Erica Kohl, Linda Frye Burnham. Published by James Irvine Foundation and online by community Arts Network, 2000.

Continental Harmony: A Study in Community-based Arts
Results of a study using a new method to evaluate a Millennium Project that matched composers with communities in every state. By Patricia Shifferd and William Cleveland (American Composers Forum, 2001; also published on CAN, 2001).

Creative Communities Initiative Summary Report
Report summarizes strategies for successful arts education partnerships with public housing communities. Findings gleaned from 2001-4, $4.65 million partnership among NEA, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), and National Guild of Community Schools of the Arts. Initiative provided arts funding to 20 community schools to support high-quality, sequential arts instruction to 7,000 children and youth living in public housing communities. This report outlines the program, its sustainability, strategies, and special considerations. Many ofindings relevant to a wide range of cross-sector arts education partnerships. Downloadable free on Web. (National Guild of Community Schools of the Arts, 2006).

Creative Industries 2005: The Congressional Report
Tracks and maps the presence of these arts-related entities in six creative industries. Find arts-centric businesses represent 4.4 percent of all businesses and 2.2 percent of all U.S.jobs and are present in all 435 Congressional districts. Written, published by Americans for the Arts, 2005.

Creative Industries: Business & Employment in the Arts
Annual study using a research-based approach to understanding the scope and importance of the arts to the U.S. economy. First national study that encompasses both nonprofit and for-profit arts industry. Uses Dun & Bradstreet data about employment and the number of arts-centric businesses, focusing solely on businesses involved in production or distribution of the arts; excludes computer programming and scientific research and other industries not focused on the arts. Web site features mechanisms to search data by state, Congressional district and city. Written, published by Americans for the Arts, established 2008.

Critical Evidence: How the Arts Benefit Student Achievement
Study pointing to strong relationships between learning in the arts and fundamental cognitive skills and capacities used in mastering other school subjects, including reading, writing and mathematics. Written by Sandra S. Ruppert; published by National Assembly of State Arts Agencies in collaboration with Arts Education Partnership, 2006.

Critical Links: Learning in the Arts and Student Academic and Social Development
Compendium of research studies about learning in the arts. Examines cognitive practices, motivation, academic development and more provide multiple kinds of evidence and support for the importance and unique position of arts in children's learning. Written, published by Arts Education Partnership, 2002.

Crossover: How Artists Build Careers across Commercial, Non-profit and Community Work
Study showing fine artists are increasingly contributing their talents to for-profit projects, such as advertising and graphic design. Based on interviews with artists in Los Angeles and San Francisco, Calif. Offers recommendations on how the arts sector can emulate the coalitions being built in the high-tech and healthcare industries. Written by Ann Markusen, published by University of Minnesota's Humphrey Institute, 2006.

Cultural Participation Survey 1998
Evaluation of Wallace Foundation Community Partnerships for Cultural Participation (CPCP) initiative. Measures cultural participation of individuals in Kansas City and northern California counties. By Urban Institute, 1998.

Cultural Policy and the Arts National Data Archive (CPANDA)
Database collaboration between Princeton University's Firestone Library and its Center for Arts and Cultural Policy Studies. "An interactive digital archive of data on the arts and cultural policy in the U.S., available for research and statistical analysis, with data on artists, arts and cultural organizations, audiences, and funding for arts and culture." Raw data, research resources, "quick facts" on artists, arts organizations, audiences and support for arts. By Firestone Library and Center for Arts and Cultural Policy Studies, Princeton University (Princeton University, 2002-present).

Cultural Vitality in Communities: Interpretation and Indicators
Monograph in Urban Institute’s Arts and Culture Indicators Project. Introduces a widened definition of "cultural vitality" as "evidence of creating, disseminating, validating, and supporting arts and culture as a dimension of everyday life in communities." Broadens "participation" to encompass festival making, amateur arts practice and public validation and discussion of cultural practices in many forms, including print, the Web and arts education (in-school and after-school). Engages "a more diverse and powerful set of stakeholders," including people who are not arts "experts" or professionals. The authors believe this wider view compels policymakers, funder and administrators to change the way they think about culture. Written by Maria-Rosario Jackson, Florence Kabwasa-Green and Joaquin Herranz; published by Urban Institute, 2006.

Culture Builds Community
Project evaluation of Culture Builds Communities in Philadelphia, a Pennsylvania grant program that funded small arts organizations and artists involved in neighborhood revitalization. Study used financial indicators, class registration statistics, population changes and long-term maintenance of relationships to evaluate success of the program. Findings: 1) strengthening cultural sector has net positive results in community; (2) sustaining a cultural sector depends on recognizing and supporting networks of key actors, including community-based artists, for-profit cultural firms, informal cultural organizations, and related nonarts organizations. By Susan Seifert and Mark Stern (Social Impact of the Arts Project, School of Social Work, University of Pennsylvania, 2002).

Culture and Commerce: The Traditional Arts and Economic Development
Study examines and measures impact of pilot partnership project between regional economic-development organizations and traditional artists and arts organizations. Shows proven effect of these partnerships on sustainability and economic impact, particularly if supported long-term. Lists potential sources of funding. By Chris Walker, Maria Jackson, Carole Rosenstein (The Urban Institute, 2003).

Culture.mondo Surveys on Cultural Portals
Results from annual surveys elicting information on structure, management, geography, budget, demographics, audiences, services, content and performance measurements portals worldwide. Written by Decima Research,;published by Culture.mondo beginning 2005.

Defining the Creative Economy: Industry and Occupational Approaches
Reviews conceptual and operational issues in defining the creative sector and its arts and cultural core. Using three pioneering cultural economy studies, each driven by distinctive policy agendas and constituencies, shows how the use of employment data by industry, firm and occupation affects the resulting size and content of the cultural economy. Shows that the Boston metro’s creative economy varies in size from less than 1% of its workforce to 49%, the latter using Richard Florida’s creative class, although most cultural definitions range from 1% to 4%. Explores how policymakers can use a combination of methods to produce a richer characterization of the regional cultural economy. Written by Ann Markusen, Gregory Wassall, Doug DeNatale and Randy Cohen; published in 2008 in Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 22, No. 1: 24-45. [268]

E-race
Qualitative and quantitative examination of the goals and objectives of "e-race," a performance and dialigue project by MISCELLANEOUS Productions of Richmond, B.C., Canada. Charts the project's exploration of youth's obsession with "speed," investigating growth and integration of cast members and audiences' reaction to the live performance and attitudinal changes over time. Written by Tristin Wayte and George Tien; published by MISCELLANEOUS Productions, 2005.

Early Childhood Interventions: Proven Results, Future Promise
Study reviewing findings of rigorous evaluations of 20 early-childhood intervention programs, including home visiting, parent education and early childhood education. Benefits to society, they say, can be measured not just in terms of educational attainment but also in earnings and crime reduction. Study puts $$ value on social benefits. Written by Lynn A. Karoly, M. Rebecca Kilburn, Jill S. Cannon, James H. Bigelow, and Rachel Christina; published by RAND Corporation, 2005.

Eloquent Evidence: The Arts at the Core of Learning
Summarizes evidence from research studies demonstrating impact and importance of learning in the arts, including Garner's multiple intelligences and research demonstrating that students of art routinely outperform other students on the SAT. Written, published by National Assembly of State Arts Agencies, 1995.

Final Report: Satisfaction and Outcomes Assessment, Hospital Artist-in-Residence Program
Evaluation demonstrates hospital artist-in-residence program is highly successful in relieving patient anxiety, reducing job burdens on caregivers and potentially increasing patient willingness to talk about their condition and treatment options. Written, published by The Creative Center: Arts for People with Cancer, 2002.

From Reggae to Rachmaninoff: How and Why People Participate in Arts and Culture
Cultural-participation survey in five U.S. communities. Survey data and statistics from all five communities, various participation types and venues. Draws on evidence from the Urban Institute�s evaluation of the Wallace Foundation's Community Partnerships for Cultural Participation initiative. By Chris Walker, Stephanie Scott-Melnyk with Kay Sherwood (Urban Institute and Wallace Foundation, 2002).

Gifts of the Muse: Reframing the Debate About the Benefits of the Arts
Study proposing that advocates become less fixated on what the arts can do for business growth and kids' math and reading scores, and stress intangibles such as enchantment, enlightenment and community building. Written, published by RAND corporation, 2004.

Hardwired To Connect: The New Scientific Case for Authoritative Communities
New scientific findings, based in brain research, suggesting "authoritative" communities" -- not punitive or authoritarian -- combine nurture and structure to help children and young people form important attachments and find a safe place to explore big questions about morality, spirituality, human existence. Written, published by The Commission on Children at Risk, 2003.

How States Are Using Arts and Culture to Strengthen Their Global Trade Development
Study on cultural exchanges with foreign countries; "sister state" relationships; cultural leaders included on trade missions, etc. Case studies, examples of successful programs, research citations, useful quotes. Written, published by NASAA, National Governors Association and NEA, 2003.

Imaginative Actuality: Learning in the Arts During the Nonschool Hours
Ten-year longitudinal study of young-people's self-selected effective learning sites in the out-of-school hours. Findings: Arts organizations provided some of the most fertile ground for young people's cognitive and linguistic development -- leading to highly developed communication, leadership, collaborative skills. By Shirley Brice Heath and Adelma Roach (In Champions of Change, the Arts Education Partnership and the President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities, 1999).

Immigrant Participatory Arts: An Insight into Community-building in Silicon Valley
Study finding that the dominant reason for existence of amateur arts groups in immigrant communities derives from strong desire of parents to maintain structure, values, language and traditions of their families. Ninety Santa Clara County (Calif.) participatory arts groups were sources for the six-month study. By Pia Moriarty (Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley, 2004).

Impact database
Bibliographical resource relating to research on social and economic effects of arts, culture and major events. Research theme: arts and culture; arts, culture and education; arts, culture and inclusion; arts and health; arts, culture and audience development; arts, culture and the economy; cultural tourism; major cultural events; and major sporting events, with an emphasis on research published since 2000. Developed, maintained by Centre for Cultural Policy Research, University of Glasgow, Scotland; commissioned by the Scottish Executive, 2008.

Impacts 08 – The Liverpool Model
Joint research initiative of the University of Liverpool (England) and Liverpool John Moores University, which evaluates the social, cultural, economic and environmental effects of Liverpool’s hosting the European Capital of Culture title in 2008. Research model for evaluating the multiple impacts of culture-led regeneration programs. Includes report "Retelling the City," personal narratives by local residents involved in the service sector. Commissioned by Liverpool City Council, 2007.

Individual Participation and Community Arts Groups: A Quantitative Analysis of Philadelphia
Study finding correlation between individual participation in arts and the number of arts organizations located in an individual's immediate community. Relationship is a more important indicator of participation than age, socioeconomic or ethnic status. Makes strong case for clustering arts organizations in neighborhoods and communities. By Susan Seifert and Mark Stern (Social Impact of the Arts Project, School of Social Work, University of Pennsylvania, 1994).

InfoUSA: Arts and Culture
U.S. State Department site: "Guide to the historic and current state of the arts in the U.S.; gateway to traditional and popular culture experienced in America today." Includes statistics.

Involvement in the Arts and Human Development: General Involvement and Intensive Involvement in Music and Theater Arts
Study analyzes relationship between arts involvement and youth development, using National Educational Longitudinal Survey as a tool. Followed 25,000+ American secondary-school students for 10 years. Found: correlation between general involvement in arts and positive academic achievement; correlation between high levels of participation in music and high achievement in math; correlation between sustained participation in theater arts and number of positive youth development traits. By James S. Catterall, Richard Chapleau, John Iwanaga (In Champions of Change, the Arts Education Partnership and the President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities, 1999).

Involving Youth in Nonprofit Arts Organizations
Report that is an urgent call to nonprofit arts organizations to concentrate on "attracting the best new talent to administer their affairs, to serve as artists and audiences, and to act as advocates, boosters and financial supporters." Includes survey of youth programs in California NAOs, case studies of 12 successful programs, and comparative analysis of youth programs in the , with an in-depth look at two leading organizations. Identifies barriers, proven approaches, best practices, lessons learned and organizational benefits of youth programs. Written by Barry Hessenius, published by William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, 2007.

Jackson County Children's Services Coalition Core Arts Program Evaluation
Profile of two program evaluations conducted by Cleveland in Jackson County, Miss., with statistical results of performance improvement in staff and youth participants. Also includes reduction in referral rates for youth involved in juvenile justice system.By William Cleveland, Center for the Study of Art and the Community, 2002.

Learning in and Through the Arts: Curriculum Implications
Study of 2,000+ public-school students in grades 4-8, conducted by team of researchers from Teacher's College, Columbia University. Found that students involved in high-arts-intensive settings performed better than students in low-arts settings in creativity, fluency, originality, elaboration and resistance to closure. Skills extend into nonarts subject areas like math and science. By Judith Burton, Robert Horowitz, and Hal Abeles (In Champions of Change, the Arts Education Partnership and the President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities, 1999).

Learning, Arts, and the Brain, The Dana Consortium Report on Arts and Cognition
Cognitive neuroscientists from seven U.S. universities grapple with the question: Are smart people drawn to the arts or does arts training make people smarter? Studies the effects of music, dance and drama education on other types of learning. Finds, for ex., that children motivated in the arts develop attention skills and strategies for memory retrieval that also apply to other subject areas. Research led by Michael S. Gazzaniga. Published by Dana Foundation, 2008.

Leisure Activities and the Risk of Dementia in the Elderly
Study of 469 subjects older than 75 years of age who resided in the community and did not have dementia at base line. Found that of physical leisure activities evaluated [swimming, bicycling, dancing, participating in group exercises, team games such as bowling, walking, climbing stairs, doing housework, and babysitting], “dance was the only physical activity associated with a lower risk of dementia.” Written by Joe Verghese, M.D., et al.; published in New England Journal of Medicine, 2003.

Louisiana: Where Culture Means Business
Economic development plan for State of Louisiana, focusing on new jobs and enterprises and quality of life for Louisiana’s self-employed artists, art and cultural components of educational institutions and businesses that produce goods and services involving the arts. Unveiled days before Hurricane Katrina and used in continuing discussions with the state to ensure that the cultural economy is central to Louisiana’s recovery. Written, published by Mt. Auburn Associates, 2005.

Making Exact Change
Study on how U.S. arts-based programs have made a significant and sustained impact on their communities, with case studies of ten exemplary organizations. Written by Willam Cleveland. Published by Community Arts Network, 2005.

Mapping Public Media
Initiative by American University's Center for Social Media. Goal: "to reveal the resources and connections that sustain this active, productive, but rarely visible world devoted to helping audiences recognize themselves as publics and act from that knowledge." Part of the Center's Future of Public Media project, conducts and publishes research on new directions in public media, convenes leaders throughout the field, and showcases innovative and productive work in public media.

Mosaic Model for Youth Development through the Arts
Three-year study on Mosaic Youth Theatre of Detroit and its methods, The study identifies and assesses the internationally acclaimed, professional performing arts training program’s goals, practice methods, and expected outcome. Conducted by University of Michigan Department of Psychology, The Detroit Initiative and Detroit-area community-based organizations; published by Mosaic Youth Theatre of Detroit, 2008. Downloadable.

NAEP Arts Report Card 1997
Assessment of skills and knowledge in music, theater and visual arts, administered to over 6,000 eighth graders in 268 schools. Shows wide gap between benefits of arts and their availability to students on a regular basis. Written, published by National Assessment of Educational Progress, 1997.

National Arts Education Public Awareness Campaign Survey
Monograph on results of Americans for the Arts' 2001 arts-education public-awareness survey. Finds 95 percent of parents believe arts are important in preparing children for the future, and 91 percent believe arts are an important part of a well-rounded education. Written, published by Americans for the Arts, 2001.

National Arts Policy Database
Information about documentation and publications related to arts and culture since 1960. Approx. 7,000 items, searchable by topic (examples: arts and public funding, cultural policy, community development and the arts). Each item has an abstract and lists publication and contact information. Written, published by Americans for the Arts, 2003.

New England's Creative Economy: The Non-profit Sector, 2002
Study finding that cultural nonprofits in New England have an economic impact of $6.654 billion. Includes estimates of spending, income, net assets, admissions, employment, volunteers and taxes. Based on a regionwide direct 2004 survey and IRS data for 1996-2002. By New England Foundation for the Arts (2005).

Participation in Arts and Culture: The Importance of Community Venues
Study finding that more people participate in arts and cultural events in open-air spaces, schools, places of worship and other nontraditional venues than in conventional arts venues. One of several Urban Institute policy briefs that spotlight themes in "Reggae to Rachmaninoff: How and Why People Participate in Arts and Culture" (a study that draws on evidence from the Urban Institute's evaluation of the Wallace Foundation's Community Partnerships for Cultural Participation initiative). By Christopher Walker (Urban Institute and Wallace Foundation, 2003).

Partnerships Between Large and Small Cultural Organizations: A Strategy for Building Arts Participation
Study of ten large-small partnerships supported by The Wallace Foundation's Community Partnerships for Cultural Participation initiative. By Francie Ostrower (Urban Institute, 2004).

Paving the way
Study mapping the youth-and-participatory-theater sector with baseline assessment of activity across England. Summarizes findings of an extensive mapping study, regional mapping reports and case-study research. Commissioned to inform development of the Young People's Participatory Theatre project a three-year initiative (2005/06 - 20008/09), funded by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS). By Arts Council England in partnership with National Association of Youth Theatres, 2007.

Performing Arts Research Coalition (PARC)
Three-year audience-research project on culture-going habits of citizens in ten U.S. cities, confirming that people attend performing arts-related events more than sporting events and place a high value on presence of performing arts near where they live, work, and seek cultural outlets. By Urban Institute (Opera America et al, 2004).

Performing Arts in a New Era
RAND Corp. study from 9/01 predicting dim future for mid-sized arts organizations. By Kevin McCarthy, Arthur Brooks, Julia Lowell, Laura Zakaras (Rand, 2001).

Performing Communities: The Grassroots Ensemble Theater Research Project
Study of ensemble theater deeply rooted in eight U.S. communities for 10 to 35 years. Lays down a base of 86 interviews with these diverse artist ensembles and their communities, then layers it with comments by the site visitors and critical writing by experts in the field of community-based arts. Also included are theater profiles, photo galleries, play excerpts and documentary resource inventories. By Robert H. Leonard, Ann Kilkelly, Jan Cohen-Cruz, Linda Frye Burnham, et. al., Published online by Community Arts Network, 2002. (Published in paperback by New village Press, 2006.)

Planning for Grassroots Arts Development: A Research Study of Nine Communities in Transition
Three-year 1973 study of first rural arts award made by National Endowment for the Arts, which identified five small Wisconsin towns and undertook a stepwise arts development program there. Compared attitudes of people to the arts in these towns with four "control communities" - towns demographically similar, with no arts infrastructure. During 2004-5, the Wisconsin Arts Board and others will revisit these communities and two others to see what has happened since. By Maryo Ewell and Peter Ewell (Arts in Society, 1975).

Prodigy Cultural Arts Program
A.k.a Tampa Arts & Youth Demonstration Project. Youth arts program focused on evidence-based practice. Integrates artistic instruction, case management, program management and research into a coherent, replicable model. Based in Tampa, Fla., a project of University Area Community Development Corporation in collaboration with University of South Florida School of Social Work, Bay Area Youth Services, community and faith-based organizations. Funded by Florida Department of Juvenile Justice.

Quantum Leadership: The Power of Community in Motion
Report outlining seven strategies that quantum leaders use to catalyze and strengthen their communities. Based on interviews with recipients of the Leadership for a Changing World Award, including artists. Written by Jennifer Milewski. Published by Leadership for a Changing World partners: Ford Foundation; Institute for Sustainable Communities; Research Center for Leadership in Action, Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York University, 2007. (PDF file)

Reading at Risk: A Survey of Literary Reading in America
Survey of 17,000 adults showing fewer than half of American adults (45 percent/93 million) now read literature; 10 percent drop from 1982 to 2002. Written, published by National Endowment for the Arts, 2004.

Report on Social Healing Arts
Conceptualizes "arts for social healing" as a values-based practice located within three larger, overlapping types of arts for change: (1) arts for community development, (2) arts for social action, and (3) arts for individual healing. Suggests that a key strategy to strengthen the field would be to support new partnerships between and within three constituencies: practitioners of arts, funders and agents of change. Written by Anne and Christopher Ellinger of Zing Foundation; published by the Fetzer Institute, 2005.

Reporting the Arts II: News Coverage of Arts and Culture in America
Follow-up to 1999 study examines the dramatic transformation of the media landscape in the wake of newspaper mergers, 9/11 and U.S. economic decline. Analyzes how the and national press balance between high and popular arts and critical and celebrity journalism. First-time look at foreign arts reporting, non-English and alternative press and coverage on radio and Web. By Andras Szanto, Daniel S. Levy, Andrew Tyndall (National Arts Journalism Program/ Columbia Graduate School of Journalism, 2004).

Research Note #85, Artist Labor Force by State, 2000
Reports the state location of workers in 11 detailed artist occupations. It examines state concentration of artists as a share of total civilian labor force, and state patterns in the location of individual artist occupations. Written, published by National Endowment for the Arts, 2004.

Research Projects, Cultural Policy Center, University of Chicago
This relatively new center is embarking on a number of projects to collect and analyze data in different arts environments and communities to produce statistics about arts and culture that will help guide cultural policy in the U.S. Written, published by Cultural Policy Center at the University of Chicago, 2003.

Research Reports
Site contains summaries of recent arts-related research in multiple fields, monographs, articles, tools and guides for conducting your own research. By the Wallace Foundation, 2003-present.

Research into Action: Pathways to New Opportunities
Report by the Philadelphia Cultural Alliance, highlights survey data informing that city’s campaign to counteract the long-term decline in arts engagement. Published September 2009.

Research on Creativity and Aging: The Positive Impact of the Arts on Health and Illness
Study following weekly senior arts programs—a senior choir, a visual arts group,and a multidisciplinary arts group—conducted by professional artists in Washington, D.C., San Francisco and New York City. Average age of participants: 80. Concludes that the positive impact indicated by the preliminary results demonstrate that “community-based cultural programs for older adults appear to be reducing risk factors that drive the need for long-term care.” Written 2001 by Eugene Cohen; commissioned by National Endowment for the Arts, National Institute of Mental Health and AARP; published by American Society on Aging, 2006.

Research: Arts and Healthcare
Brief descriptions, links and conference proceedings from several recent studies on the arts and healthcare. Written, published by Society for the Arts in Healthcare, 2002-2003.

Schools, Communities and the Arts: A Research Compendium
Arts-education information tool developed by Morrison Institute for Public Policy, Arizona State University, on behalf of the National Endowment for the Arts' Arts in Education Program, 1995.

Social Impact of the Arts Project (SIAP)
Launched in 1994; conducts policy research projects that describe and analyze the role cultural organizations play in metropolitan Philadelphia, Pa., and neighborhoods. Part of larger effort nationwide, particularly including the Arts and Cultural Indicators Project (ACIP) of the Urban Institute, to consider seriously the place of arts and culture in construction of social and public policy. Mark Stern and Susan Seifert, project directors. Written, published by School of Social Work, University of Pennsylvania, 1994-.

Some Australian Arts Statistics
Results of recent surveys by Australian government illustrating national arts climate, arts employment, arts participation, and distribution of resources. Written, published by Australia Council for the Arts, 2003.

Stand and Unfold Yourself: A Monograph on the Shakespeare and Company Research Study
Harvard's Project Zero studied two seasons of 20-year-old professional theater company's school-education programs. Asked: (1) Why do these programs work so well? (2) What are participants are actually learning? (3) What is critical to success of these programs? Found arts provide ideal setting for "profound learning experiences" in high levels of literacy, social and personal growth and development, and development of higher-order thinking skills. By Steve Seidel (In Champions of Change, the Arts Education Partnership and the President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities, 1999).

State Arts Agencies 1965-2003: Whose Interests to Serve?
RAND study arguing that agencies should view their role as providing a service to all state residents, rather than service to artists and nonprofit arts organizations, and they must get a consensus from a much broader spectrum of Americans than was true in the past. From State Arts Partnerships for Cultural Participation (START) initiative commissioned by Wallace Foundation. By Julia F. Lowell (RAND Corporation, 2004).

Statistical Indicators for Arts Policy: Discussion Paper from IFACCA
Identifies current work and global resources on cultural indicators, explores analytical and coordination issues and makes suggestions for future. Summarizes IFACCA's work on the issue to date; provides brief overview of cultural-indicators literature. Written, published by International Federation of Arts Councils and Culture Agencies (IFACCA), 2004.

Strengthening Rural Economies through the Arts
Study showing how states are turning to arts-based economic development strategies to revive rural economies. Case studies, examples of successful programs, research citations, useful quotes. Written, published by NASAA, National Governors Association and NEA, 2005.

Survey of Arts and Cultural Organizations 2000
Examines audience-diversification strategies and organizational partnerships of government or nonprofit art and culture organizations in Wallace Foundation Community Partnerships for Cultural Participation (CPCP) initiative. Measures Kansas City and northern California counties. By Urban Institute, 2000.

Survey of Public Participation in the Arts 2002
Note summarizing results of survey conducted in 2002. Contains tables with useful percentages of arts participation in both formal and informal arts, for both observers and creators. Written, published by National Endowment for the Arts, 2002.

Teaching Literacy Through Art
Three-year study to evaluate the impact of arts education on literacy among elementary-school children. Finds that students in the Guggenheim Museum program Learning Through Art performed better in several categories of literacy and critical thinking skills — including extended focus, hypothesizing, and providing multiple interpretations — than did students not in the program. Published by Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 2005-7.

The Art of Democracy - Democracy as Art: Creative Learning in Afterschool Comic Book Clubs
Analysis and synthesis of national launch of The Comic Book Project, an arts-based literacy and learning initiative hosted by Teachers College, Columbia University with materials published by Dark Horse Comics. Paper examines the children's processes and products through the lens of John Dewey's "Democracy and Education." Written by Michael Bitz (project founder); published by Robert Bowne Foundation in Afterschool Matters, 2006. (PDF)

The Art of the Animateur
Research report called "an investigation into the skills and insights required of artists to work effectively in schools and communities." Action research project on practices and environments necessary for high-quality work work of animateurs (teaching artists in England). First stage of longer-term inquiry. By George Odam, Anna Ledgard, Christopher Lucas, et al. (Animarts in partnership with The London International Festival of Theatre and the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, 2003).

The Artmaker as Active Agent: Thesis and Interview
Study exploring of the work of six individual community artists as a thesis for a Masters degree in Professional Studies at Cornell University. Combines strategies from arts criticism and social science, creating concept maps, and examines artists' methods by using critical standards developed by artist/scholar Suzanne Lacy. Written by Susan Monagan. Published by Communtiy Arts Network, 2006.

The Arts & Economic Development: Achieving Results and Measuring Impacts
Study commissioned to stimulate new thinking and perspectives on how arts, culture and entertainment can be incorporated into state, regional and local economic-development strategies. Data from such initiatives in northeastern U.S. Various authors; commissioned by Northeastern Economic Developers Association (NEDA), 2002. (PDF file)

The Arts and Civic Engagement: Involved in Arts, Involved in Life
Large population survey described as first to find links between arts participation and community health. Finds that people who participate in the arts also engage in positive civic and individual activities -- volunteering, going to sporting events and outdoor activities -- at significantly higher rates than nonarts participants. 2002 survey interviewed 17,135 adults ages 18 and older about their activities in a 12-month period. Written, published by National Endowment for the Arts, 2006. (PDF file)

The Arts and Humanities in Montgomery County: An Empirical Profile
In-depth profile gives picture of how a community with a developing arts culture supports its art and artists. Showed $40-million dollars with high volunteer support, low private foundation support, and 95 percent of government support going to large organizations. Showed need for more access to public support, greater private support, and need for performance venues. By Stefan Toepler with Greg Finch (Americans for the Arts and the Arts Policy and Administration Program of Ohio State University, 1999).

The Arts and Social Capital
Section of a report offering practical recommendations on how to improve social capital, or "social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them." Useful subsection on trends in arts participation in both formal and informal arts, with statistics and dollar numbers from U.S. (circa 2000). Recommends increased funding for community arts, creating opportunities for collaboration between arts organizations, and making civic dialogue an integral part of artistic productions. By Robert Putnam et al. (In Better Together, a report from the Saguaro Seminar, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 2001).

The Arts: A Competitive Advantage for California II
Study finding nonprofit arts in California add $5.4 billion to state's economy; support 160,000 jobs; generate nearly $300 million in state/local taxes; rank California nation's leader with most arts-related businesses, people employed in creative industries; are equivalent of 10,000 small businesses. Comparisons to 1984 study. By Diane L. Mataraza, Inc. (California Arts Council, 2004).

The Creative Economy: A New Definition
Report including definition of cultural-enterprise and cultural-worker categories from widely available U.S. federal data sources; protocol for measuring these categories; data on cultural-enterprise employment in each state of New England and data and demographics on cultural workers in each state of New England. Written by Douglas DeNatale and Gregory H. Wassall; published by New England Foundation for the Arts, 2007.

The Creative Engine
Study of 150 economic and community development organizations in New York City supports the proposition that nurturing the cultural sector means focusing on the thousands of smaller organizations that feed cultural economic development at the neighborhood level. By Neil Scott Kleiman (Center for an Urban Future, 2002)

The Informal Arts: Finding Cohesion, Capacity, and Other Cultural Benefits in Unexpected Places
Report on two-year ethnographic study of participation in the "informal arts" -- diverse creative activities outside traditional nonprofit and commercial arts. Concludes that "the informal arts occupy a significant place in the social infrastructure of communities, helping to build both individual identity and group solidarity." Makes important case for valuable role of arts in building desirable types of community. Alaka Wali, Principal Investigator (Chicago Center for Arts Policy, 2002).

The Nonprofit Listening Post Project
Survey of nonprofit agencies serving children and families, the elderly, community and economic development and the arts. Documents actual effects of recent economic weakness and government budget cuts on U.S. charitable organizations and those they serve, and how organizations have responded. By Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies (Johns Hopkins University, 2004).

The Qualities of Quality: Understanding Excellence in Arts Education
Study presents definitions of, markers of excellence in and the effects of foundational decisions on high quality arts learning and teaching, based on interviewe with leading arts practitioners, theorists and administrators; visits to exemplary arts programs across a range media and settings; and review of published literature. Written by Steven Seidel, Shari Tishman, Lois Hetland, Ellen Winner and Patricia Palmer. Commissioned by Wallace Foundation; published by Project Zero, Harvard Grduate School of Education, June 2009. Downloadable as pdf.

The Regional Arts Lottery Programme: An Evaluation
Extensive evaluation of the U.K.'s Regional Arts Lottery Programme, which gave out more than 2000 awards 1999-2002 worth than 59 million pounds+ ($88 million+). Shows how they filled a gap between small project grants and large capital investments, making projects possible and developing organizations. Also makes recommendations for improving the program. By Annabel Jackson and Graham Devlin (The Arts Council of England, 2003).

The Role of the Arts in Economic Development
Study on how arts programs help state/local governments generate economic renewal in under-performing regions, assist in downtown redevelopment, create "vibrant public spaces" that increase quality of life and positive public image, and make communities more attractive to new residents. Case studies, examples of successful programs, research citations, useful quotes. Written, published by NASAA, National Governors Association and NEA, 2001.

The Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey
Largest scientific investigation of civic engagement done (through 2000) in U.S. Respondents and representative samples in 40 communities across 29 states. Asked about community trust, participation in voting, participation in community groups, arts groups, etc. By The Saguaro Seminar: Civic Engagement in America (John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 2000).

The YouthARTS Development Project: Youth Arts Public Art
Study of a delinquency-prevention collaboration by NEA and U.S. Dept. of Justice and three local arts agencies in Georgia, Oregon and Texas. Written by Heather J. Clawson and Kathleen Coolbaugh; published by Dept. of Justice in Juvenile Justice Bulletin, 2001; republished on CAN, 2001.

Thriving Arts: Thriving Small Communities
Study of ten communities with populations from one to six thousand, identifying five key ingredients to growing an “arts-active” community: • Underlying social context – attitudes and values grounded in acceptance of differences, a welcoming openness and a pride of place • Informal and community-based arts – a valuing of arts in everyday life • Leadership with a broad vision for cultural development and an empowering style • Social networks – integration of the arts into the larger structures of community life • Support to infrastructure development. Written by Sharon Rodning Bash; published by Metropolitan Regional Arts Council (Minnesota), 2003.

Thriving Arts: Thriving Small Communities
Study of ten small Minnesota communities finding five key ingredients to developing an "arts-active" community: valuing diversity, openness and pride of place; valuing arts in everyday life; leadership with vision for cultural development and an empowering style; social networks; support for infrastructure development. Written by by Sharon Rodning Bash; published by Metropolitan Regional Arts Council, St. Paul, 2006.

U.S. Artists Report
Online home of "Investing in Creativity: A Study of the Support Structure for U.S. Artists" by Urban Institute.

Unified Database of Arts Organizations
Joint project of Urban Institute, State Arts Agencies, National Endowment for the Arts, and the IRS. Searchable; contains extensive statistical data on financial support, organizational activities, types and classifications of organizations, etc. Written, published by Urban Institute, 2003.

Weaving the Web of Community
Interactive online report examining a community coalition of 20 cultural, educational and political organizations. Explores how the organizations pooled their time and resources to change their conceptions about the process of social change. Video interviews. Written by Nilima Mwendo and Mat Schwarzman; published by National Performance Network, 2005.

Why the Arts Matter in Education: or Just What Do Children Learn When They Create an Opera?
Study of school-based elementary opera program. Found that students in the opera setting participate more substantively in group interactions than students in alternative settings. This collaborative work leads to more effective problem solving. Uses both qualitative and quantitative data. By Dennie Palmer Wolf (In Champions of Change, the Arts Education Partnership and the President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities, 1999).

YouthARTS Development Project
Study of a delinquency-prevention collaboration among federal agencies, national arts organizations and three local arts agencies in Georgia, Oregon and Texas, designed to identify, implement, and refine effective arts-based delinquency prevention programs. Finds that providing youth with new skills, giving them the opportunities to use these skills, and offering them positive feedback and recognition for their hard work can potentially lead to healthier attitudes and positive behaviors. Written by Heather J. Clawson and Kathleen Coolbaugh; published by NEA and U.S. Dept. of Justice, 1995.

pARTicipate San Diego: The Case for Increased Patronage for Arts and Culture in the San Diego Region
Study finding that the San Diego, Calif., region places high priority on increasing arts education; San Diego’s arts and culture community is underfunded; cultural participation needs to be deepened and expanded, leading to greater resources for arts and culture; two-thirds of San Diegans would be willing to pay more taxes to support arts and culture. Written, published by San Diego Foundation.

 

Recommend A Study
If you would like to recommend a link to a study or research project that you believe would be valuable to include on this site, please CLICK HERE and use our "Recommend a Link" form. We do ask that you respect the fact that this site has a specific research and educational focus and we only consider links that fall inside those interests. We will review your recommendation and add it to our database if we feel it would be a valuable addition to our readers.

 

 
 


New Studies
The Qualities of Quality: Understanding Excellence in Arts Education
Study presents definitions of, markers of excellence in and the effects of foundational decisions on high quality arts learning and teaching, based on interviewe with leading arts practitioners, theorists and administrators; visits to exemplary arts programs across a range media and settings; and review of published literature. Written by Steven Seidel, Shari Tishman, Lois Hetland, Ellen Winner and Patricia Palmer. Commissioned by Wallace Foundation; published by Project Zero, Harvard Grduate School of Education, June 2009. Downloadable as pdf.
Research into Action: Pathways to New Opportunities
Report by the Philadelphia Cultural Alliance, highlights survey data informing that city’s campaign to counteract the long-term decline in arts engagement. Published September 2009.
Arts Education: A Special Collection of Case Studies
Collection of 67 case studies that "reveals the lessons, benefits, and pitfalls of existing and past projects, providing vital information for program staff at organizations running their own Arts Education projects." Contributors include Americans for the Arts, the Arts Education Partnership, CAPE, Arts for All, Hospital Audiences and many more. Edition of online bimonthly publication CloseUp, published by IssueLab, June/July 2009.
Arts & Health: An International Journal of Research, Policy and Practice
Official journal of the Society for the Arts in Healthcare, published by Routledge. Edited by Prof Stephen Clift and Paul Camic of Canterbury Christ Church University and Prof Norma Daykin of the University of the West of England. Takes a broad-based approach in examining uses of the arts in public health, health promotion and healthcare. Publishes empirical research, policy analysis, theoretical discourse, systematic reviews and examples of best practice. Founded 2009.
Learning, Arts, and the Brain, The Dana Consortium Report on Arts and Cognition
Cognitive neuroscientists from seven U.S. universities grapple with the question: Are smart people drawn to the arts or does arts training make people smarter? Studies the effects of music, dance and drama education on other types of learning. Finds, for ex., that children motivated in the arts develop attention skills and strategies for memory retrieval that also apply to other subject areas. Research led by Michael S. Gazzaniga. Published by Dana Foundation, 2008.

 


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