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Aboriginal Youth Identity Series: Health and WellnessTid BitsBiographiesGlossaryTimeline Health and Wellness
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10,000 ancient Siksika culture developing on the plains
982-1014: Norsemen set up outpost in North America and encounter Inuit, Beothuks, and Mi’kmaqs
1450: Iroquois League of Five Nations is formed uniting the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca tribes
1497: John Cabot arrives off the East coast of Canada at what is now Newfoundland (subsequently claims this land for England)
1534 to 1541: Jacques Cartier explores the east coast of Canada and the St. Lawrence River and makes contact with Algonkian and Iroquoian speaking tribes. Reaches the present day towns of Quebec City and Montreal
1540: Horse brought to North America by the Spanish
1607: Samuel de Champlain establishes Québec City
1609: Champlain fires a gun on the Iroquois during a war party. This is the first time they have seen a fire arm. Subsequently, the Iroquois turn on the French for decades
1611: The first Jesuit missionaries arrive at Port Royal in what is now Nova Scotia
1670: The Hudson’s Bay Company is established and fur trading begins
1690: Historians believe Métis history can be traced back to this time
1730s: The horse and gun come to the Siksika on the northern plains
1738: Smallpox strikes Aboriginal people in the west
1754: Anthony Henday is the first European to reach the Rocky Mountains
1781: Smallpox epidemic kills one third of the Siksika population
1784: North West Trading company is established
1794: Jay’s Treaty defines the border between the United States and Canada. Aboriginal people were able to move freely across the border.
1816: Battle of Seven Oaks in Manitoba. Métis kill Red River governor, Robert Semple and 20 setters. Only one Métis is killed. This is the first time that the Métis flag is flown (blue background with white infinity or lazy 8 symbol)
1820: Métis people have marked permanent residence at Red River
1821: Merger between Hudson’s Bay Company and the North West Company
1825: The last of the Beothuk Nation dies
1830’s: End of peak fur trading period
1835: The York boat is developed by Métis, William Sinclair
1837: Smallpox kills 2/3rds of Siksika people and large numbers of Assiniboine
1840s: Alcohol starts to take its toll on Aboriginal people on the Plains and the area becomes very unsettled
1867: Dominion of Canada established
1869: Small pox strikes Siksika, Piikani, and Kainai tribes
• Hudson’s Bay Company sells Rupert’s Land to the government of Canada which promptly causes Métis to launch the Red River Rebellion
• Whiskey trade period at its peak until 1875
1870: Manitoba Act promises 1,400,000 acres of land to Métis in settlement of their Indian title
• Last full scale battle with the Siksika against the Cree and the Stoney-Assiniboine
1871: Beginning of the signing of the Numbered Treaties
1873: Cypress Hills Massacre
1874: North West Mounted Police formed and dispatched to the Plains to control whiskey trade; Fort Macleod is built
1875: Fort Calgary built
1876: Indian Act is passed
• serious depletion of the buffalo begins
1877: Treaty 7 signed by the government of Canada, Siksika Confederation, T’suu T’ina (Sarcee), and Stoney Nations
1879: Buffalo in Siksika hunting grounds are driven south forcing many to move to Montana to follow the buffalo
• The Dominion Lands Act (1879) recognizes Métis claims to Aboriginal title, however nothing really comes out of the Act to please Métis people


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