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Alberta's Francophone Heritage
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Francophone Edukit

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Treaty of Utrecht (1713)
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Treaty of Utrecht
(1713)

Treaty of Paris
(1763)

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Battle of Vigo BayThe war of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) involved all of the major European powers of the time and ultimately, their colonies.1

Following the death of the Spanish king, Charles II, who was childless, it was found that he had stipulated in his will that his throne should go to the grandson of the Louis XIV, giving the French control of much of coastal Europe as well as to the Spanish-American colonies. Leopold I, the Holy Roman Emperor contested this, claiming that his son had just as much right to the throne; England, Portugal, Italy, and Holland sided with the German states. Also known by the British as Queen Anne’s War, the conflict that ensued lasted 11 years, eventually resulting in French defeat.

In North America, the Acadian and New England colonies raided each other with deadly consequences. The French attacked and destroyed Bonavista in the British Colony of Newfoundland. The British gained control of Port Royal and were on their way to Quebec when their fleet was wrecked in a storm in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. During the conflict, the French army in the colony of New France had made considerable headway and were controlling Hudson Bay, wresting it from the British (and the Hudson’s Bay Company). Despite their North American success, when the war ended in Europe and the Treaty of Utrecht was signed, the French were forced to give up Acadia, Newfoundland, and the entire Hudson Bay basin, keeping only the colony of New France. Although the French kept Louisiana, it was not a profitable colony.

The Treaty of Utrecht is considered to signal the end of French expansion in North America and the rise of the British Empire.

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