The First Uprising and the Establishment of the Palestinian Authority
The first Palestinian Intifadeh (uprising) was a grassroots movement that began in 1987 in opposition to twenty years of Israeli military occupation. It ended in August 1993 with the Declaration of Principles at Oslo and the establishment of the Palestinian National Authority.
The cause of the first Intifadeh included extra-judicial killings, mass detentions, house demolitions, and deportations of Palestinians. At the same time there was a general belief that the Palestinians were losing support from their Arab allies with the withdrawal of Egypt’s claim to the Gaza Strip and Jordan reducing pressure in its claim to the West Bank. There was also a feeling that neighbouring Arab countries were not supporting the development of a Palestinian state. Other social pressures included population growth, increasing unemployment, and fewer opportunities for education among the Palestinians.
The Intifadeh began with ambush attacks on Israeli forces and patrols in the Occupied Palestinian Territories with rock throwing. This was replaced with the use of Molotov cocktails, over 100 hand grenade attacks, and about 500 attacks with guns or explosives. Actions included the withholding of taxes by shopkeepers. The withholding tax was met with jail terms and the seizure of property of those not paying the Israeli authorities.
As a result of the long-term rebellion the Israeli and Palestinian authorities negotiated a solution that resulted in the Oslo Accords that were finalized in Oslo, Norway on 20 August 1993 and signed in Washington, D.C. 13 September 1993.
The Oslo Accords set out the framework for the creation of the Palestinian National Authority that was a Palestinian administration over the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.