The Oslo Accords
With the ongoing Intifadeh that began in 1987, both secret and public agreements were being negotiated between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) at the Madrid Conference of 1991. This was the most significant negotiation until the Oslo Accords. The Oslo Accords were officially entitled the “Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements.” The Accords were completed at Oslo, Norway on 20 August 1993. This agreement was then signed officially at a ceremony in Washington, D.C. on 13 September 1993. The meeting in Oslo marked the first time the PLO and Israeli leaders met formally to come to an agreement.
The Oslo Accords established the Palestinian National Authority, which was an interim Palestinian administration of the West Bank and Gaza Strip that would last five years. The Palestinian National Authority was to be responsible for the security of the territories under its control. It also has some international recognition with observer status at the United Nations. It also received significant financial assistance from the European Union and the United States.
Yasser Arafat participated in the 1993 Oslo Peace Conference and was a co-winner of the 1994 Nobel Peace Prize along with Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Rabin for their efforts.
By 1996, Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu declared that he would not support the terms of the Oslo Accord. This change brought a return to violence between the two groups.