Citizens of counties, towns, and cities elect
representatives to be responsible for municipal, or local, government. The
elected representatives of counties and other rural bodies, such as improvement
districts, are called reeves (the heads) and councillors. People elected
to run towns and cities are called mayors (the heads) and aldermen and/or
councillors. In both cases, the group together is called a council, and by
"local government," we mean the various councils. Councillors
may belong to political
parties, but they do not represent a party when they run
for election. Also, unlike the Prime Ministers or Premiers, reeves and
mayors are elected directly to their positions.
Each provincial Legislature decides what local governments
are responsible for. Usually they are given authority in matters such as
local fire and police services, libraries, transportation within the
municipality or county, local health issues, pest control, and so on.
Municipal governments may pass laws governing these areas, and these laws are