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The hide tipi used by the Plains Indians is believed to date back to the Oxbow period and was a form of architecture ideally suited to the windy plains environment and to nomadic peoples. Conical in shape and simple to construct and deconstruct, its wood poles and cover of bison hide made it readily accessible and easy to transport. It could be heated in winter by a small central fire. The protruding smoke flaps could be shifted to catch the wind or be closed in rainy weather. Its tough hide walls were well anchored to the ground and therefore it remained snug and stable even during the worst prairie storm.

Tipi Ring: The base of most tipis were anchored to the ground by large rocks in order to keep the structure stable during severe weather. The rocks would be placed upon the outside of the hide covering, at its base. Often, when a tribe left its seasonal home, they took their tipi with them leaving behind the stones that anchored it. Rocks were readily available and generally too burdensome to carry from place to place. As a result of this practice the prairies are scattered with these stone circles that archaeologists now refer to as "tipi rings".

Astokumi or Crow Collar and Wife

Astokumi or Crow Collar and Wife