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Edmonton, 1891 - 1900

Population and comparisons
In 1895, Edmonton’s population was 1,165 and 2,626 in 19011. Henderson Directory was quoting a population of 2,750 for the year 18982. No matter: Edmonton, which had incorporated in 1892 and had become the Town of Edmonton), could now elect a mayor and councillors and could also raise taxes.

By comparison, Calgary had a population of 3,207 inhabitants in 18953 and 4,500 in 18994. But it was Winnipeg that had the honour of being the biggest city in Western Canada with a population, in 1899, of 54,778 inhabitants5.

A census from St. Joachim parish taken in 1899 stated that 555 people6 were living within its borders: of these, 382 were speaking French7, which would give the French-speaking population about 15% of the total population of Edmonton. Fifteen years earlier, during a census taken in 1885, Hart estimates that Edmonton was about 300 strong, of which “about half would be of French-speaking origin.”8

Arrival of the railway
At the end of the 19th century, the railway was synonymous with development. For transportation of materials and immigrants, as well as communication by telegraph, cities with railroads were more attractive to newcomers. Edmonton’s development increased when the railway finally came in 1891.

In the 1880s, at the time when the engineers of the Canadian Pacific Railway were choosing a route to the Pacific Ocean, Calgary and Edmonton were competing:  would the train take the southern route or the northern route?  In 1881, it was decided that the train would go through Calgary.  By 1883, Calgary was developing more rapidly than Edmonton.  Edmonton would have to wait another ten years for the arrival of the railway to witness the beginning of its development as a city.

In 1891, the train arrived from Calgary.  At that time, it stopped in Edmonton-South (Strathcona), a separated community of 505 inhabitants9. To cross the North Saskatchewan River and get to Edmonton, the traveller had to use John Walter’s ferry10.

Trains arrived from Calgary twice a week – on Mondays and Thursdays – and would go back to Calgary on Tuesdays and Fridays.  Starting in February, 1898, there were three trains weekly and they were frequently late11 on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. Soon, there would be three mail deliveries per week12. What normally took four days by stagecoach could now be done in 12 hours13.

In the spring of 1898, it was possible to see the pillars of the soon-to-be-built Low Level Bridge the train would use to get across the river to Edmonton.  Started in 1897, the bridge would be completed in 1902.

A Montreal-Winnipeg ticket cost $22.40 and a Montreal-Edmonton ticket $43.30. A Montreal-Edmonton box-car could be rented for $210.0014.

Newcomers from the United States or elsewhere enjoyed a special price; if they could present an immigration certificate, they could travel on the Canadian Pacific Railway and only pay one cent per mile15. This favoured the European or American newcomers and penalized Canadians coming from Eastern Canada16.

Until the arrival of the railway, Edmonton’s population had stagnated; now, however, the train made it easier for newcomers to come to Edmonton.

Jasper Avenue and the commercial district

Jasper Avenue, parallel to the North Saskatchewan River, was the main artery in the development of Edmonton’s commercial district. Via this route, one could easily get to Fort Edmonton, to St. Albert via St. Albert Trail, to Stony Plain via Stony Plain Road, to Victoria Settlement via Victoria Road, or to Fort Saskatchewan via Fort Road. Little by little, commercial buildings were built on Jasper Avenue.

The commercial district was going to be developed on both sides of Jasper Avenue, between Kinistino (96 Avenue) and First Street (101 Street). One- or two-storey buildings, made mostly of wood, were erected.

MacGregor, in his book “Klondike Rush Through Edmonton” mentions that:

The town’s central area included a number of well-stocked two-storey stores, alternated with uncleared lots where the original trees still sheltered an occasional rabbit or a squirrel. Here and there, huge hip-roofed livery stables stood watch over the squattier buildings.17

Hudson Bay Reserve
Only the south part of Jasper Avenue up to the North Saskatchewan River and west of First Street (101 Street) had been subdivided and sold to the Hudson Bay Company. This part of Edmonton was named Hudson Bay Reserve.18 It started east of First Street (101 Street) and ended west of Twenty-First Street (121 Street). The section located north of Jasper Avenue still belonged to Hudson’s Bay Company and would be subdivided in 1912.

In the section called Hudson Bay Reserve, many residents had purchased lots from Hudson’s Bay Company. Few commercial enterprises were located on Jasper Avenue, west of First Street, in Hudson Bay Reserve. One could find the general store that belonged to Hudson’s Bay Company located at the north-east corner of Third Street (103 Street) and Jasper Avenue.

The pamphlet “Historical Walking Tours of Downtown Edmonton” gives this information about the commercial enterprises located on Jasper Avenue: “The wood construction was still the norm in 1899, and false-fronted stores sprang up in a sometimes uneven line along Jasper Avenue east of 101 Street”.19

Public Utilities
Thanks to the initiative of some ingenious individuals, Edmonton boasted many public utilities that were common to bigger cities: telephone, telegraph, electricity, and a fire department.

Thanks to Alex Taylor, Edmonton residents had telephone service.20 The Telephone Central Agency was located on the second floor of the Gariépy Building21 owned by Joseph-Hormidas Gariépy and located where the Toronto-Dominion Bank is located today, at the northwest corner of 100 Street and Jasper Avenue. Miss Jennie Lauder was the telephone operator. There was even a direct line between Edmonton and St. Albert and between St. Albert and Morinville.22 In Movember 1899, a telephone line between Beaumont and Edmonton was used for the first time.23

Edmonton had a telegraph. It was operated by George Voyer, a francophone who, since  1891, was a telegraphist with the Canadian Pacific Railway in Edmonton.24

There was even electricity in Edmonton. The generator was located in the ravine behind the Larue & Picard store on Jasper Avenue where the Hotel MacDonald is now located. “It (Edmonton) is lighted with electric light, has well laid out and well-graded streets with good sidewalks”.25

Edmonton boasted a fire department whose engineer was Mr. Cléophas Turgeon, recently arrived from Montreal.

Banks were among the most important institutions in Edmonton in 1898. That year, there were three banks, one of which was French-Canadian.

Officially opened on September 26, 1894, “Banque Jacques-Cartier” moved in December 1894 to a new building located on the south side of Jasper Avenue, east of McDougall Street (100 Street) near the Larue & Picard store. This bank building, whose owners were Mr. Chave and Mr. Hétu and whose contractor had been Mr. Alex F. Dégagné, was considered by the Edmonton Bulletin as “the handsomest building in Edmonton”.26

In 1898, the bank manager was Joseph-Eugène Laurencelle, and he lived on the second floor of the building. The clerk was Joseph-Louis Cartier. In its advertisement, “Banque Jacques-Cartier” whose head-office was in Montréal, was said to have capital in the amount of $500,000 and a reserve of $250 00027.

In February 1898, “Banque Jacques-Cartier” wanted to open two new branches, one in Ottawa and the other in Saint-Jérôme. It was proof of the vitality and confidence in Edmonton’s branch.28 Edmonton-South, on the other side of the North Saskatchewan River, also owned a branch of “Banque Jacques-Cartier” in the Post Office building29 located on Whyte avenue. In June 1898 and again in May 1899, the managers’ report described the bank’s satisfactory situation.30

In September 1899, the “Banque Jacques-Cartier” had to close its doors for the first time. Here is what the newspaper L’Ouest Canadien wrote:

The managers are surely proceeding to restore the institution on more solid ground. With the help of its customers and without reluctance.  They are the ones (…) who will define the situation by subscribing to a 12-month delay which was asked of them (…) During the last stampede, the “Banque Jacques-Cartier” paid (...) $1,500,000 in two days; it was a proof of its great vitality; but with a restricted capital of $500,000, it was prudent to order a temporary suspension in order to make the necessary arrangements to safeguard everyone’s interests.31

The newspaper L’Ouest Canadien quickly jumped to the bank’s defense:

One asks if the banknotes from “Banque Jacques-Cartier” are good. One has only to say that these banknotes are guaranteed by the deposits made by Canadian banks to the government. To our readers who are in a business relationship with the bank, our advice is to be calm and patient. “Banque Jacques-Cartier” will reopen its doors, we firmly believe, in a short time.32

“Banque Jacques-Cartier” reopened its doors for a couple of weeks in November 1899.33 But on November 11, Alphonse Desjardins was fired as president and was replaced by M.G.N. Duchame [sic].

The bank closed down on July 13, 1900.

The bank has passed out of existence, having been incorporated in a new concern to be known as Provincial Bank of Canada (...) The Edmonton branch is closed (...) all the inside fixtures have been shipped east.34

It was a big blow for Edmonton and particularly for the francophone community, which had lost one of its economic pillars. The building was now owned by the Union Bank which opened a branch in Edmonton some months later.

The other banks opened to the public in 1898 were the Imperial Bank (since 1892) and the Merchants’ Bank (1898).

Many hotels offering service in French were built on Jasper Avenue. At the Queen’s Hotel (owned by Henri Hétu, but rented to Neville White, who would team up with  M. Béliveau), the barman was M. Durrant. The Alberta Hotel, the nicest and most luxurious hotel in Edmonton35 at the turn of the century, was sold to Camille David in 1900.36 The barman was M. Billeau37 and the accountant was M. DeSousis. There was also a clerk, Siméon Cloutier. In 1900, the same Cloutier became the owner of the Victoria Hotel38 with G. Corriveau. J.N. Pomerleau was to become the owner of the famous Windsor Hotel, which would become the Selkirk in 1913.39

Edmonton’s francophone community
There were many francophones in high places in Edmonton: the Dominion Land Office  was under the responsibility of Mr. George Roy, registrar, who was assisted by Antonio Prince and by Jules Royal, the son of the Lieutenant-Governor of the Northwest Territories, Joseph Royal.

The General Hospital, administered by the Grey Nuns, offered its services since 1895 and was located near St. Joachim Church in the west part of town. The General Hospital, with its 35 beds, was “a large and well-equipped hospital, free to all denominations (…) situated in the west end of the town.”40

Francophone professionals in Edmonton
Some francophone professionals who had an important role in the community paid for publicity in the town’s newspapers. One example was Dr. Philippe Roy who had arrived from Montréal in July 1898; he had his office on Fourth Street near Victoria Avenue. Another one was Frédéric Villeneuve, lawyer and notary, member of the NWT Legislative Assembly and the editor-in-chief of the newspaper L’Ouest Canadien.

St. Joachim Parish
In 1898, many Francophones were living in Edmonton. In the 1899 census conducted by St. Joachim’s parish, there were 555 people, of which 382 spoke French41. They would primarily congregate around the parish, a sort of social frame that enabled centralisation of the community’s efforts:

Guided by their conviction that the best way to preserve the French-Canadian identity was to recreate the Québécois “milieu”, the priests’ first objective was to establish, as quickly as possible, a parish in every location where French-Canadians would immigrate42 .

Located in the west part of town, St. Joachim Parish was far enough from the commercial district to develop into a distinct community yet close enough to have access to all the services and advantages of a big town. Moreover, many lots around the church had not been yet sold, giving the impression of distance.

The church
The building dates back to 1877; another one had to be built to accommodate more faithfuls because this church was the only Catholic church in Edmonton. The newspaper L’Ouest Canadien mentions that “the instruction was done alternatively in English and in French”43. In 1899, the church that we know today, located at the corner of 10Street (110 Street) and Victoria Avenue (100 Avenue) was completed.

Once the parish had been established, a school had to be built to educate francophone Catholic youth. In 1888, Bishop Grandin arranged for five nuns from the Faithful Companion of Jesus to come to Edmonton and open a convent for young girls. By the end of 1888, the local authorities secured the right to create Separate Catholic School District #7, called St. Joachim. During the first school board election, George Roy was named the district’s first president and Antonio Prince was the first secreatary.44

The Elite
Aside from the clergy, the elite of the French-Canadian community of Edmonton was found among the businessmen and the professionals.

Interaction between different groups in the community is apparent when one considers the presidents of the St. Jean-Baptiste Society. Those who held this office between 1888 and 1900 were also involved in Edmonton. These men were part of the elite: they were educated, prosperous, and bilingual. They wanted to advance the national interests of French‑Canadians; they also wanted to participate, along with other pioneers, in the development of the West.45.

Important Edmonton francophone families married amongst themselves: “The Gariépys, Lessards, and Déchènes were all connected by marriage. Moreover, these marriages would guarantee that these men, called upon to become very important, would collaborate closely with each other”.46

In fact, the elite that would surface following difficulties relating to the francophones’ rights had as their mandate to represent the interests of francophones whose objective was to advance their cause. At the political, economic, or social level, the role played by the French-Canadian elite was considerable. And who better than these people who had mostly come from Québec and who were already aware of the problems of minority rights. Day after day, it was possible to encounter “the Other” — the majority — and to wield influence to make anglophones see francophones’ loyalty and desire to cooperate. This francophone elite would create many organisms whose ultimate goal was the preservation of the community and its sense of belonging.

Francophone organisations
To counter the threat of the Orangemen, the St. Jean Baptiste Society, whose motto was “Our institutions, our language, our rights”, was created in St. Albert in 1888. Another chapter was created in Edmonton in 1894. Its first president was George Roy, the Dominion Land Office registrar.47 The society would offer another way of maintaining a French-Canadian identity. Once a year, it would assemble all francophones from the region to celebrate St. Jean.Baptiste Day (June 24th). Political speeches offered during the celebrations served to rekindle the patriotism and the nationalism of French‑Canadians. In 1898, the village of Morinville observed St. Jean.Baptiste Day and about 800 people showed up.48

Moreover, the elite wanted to establish close ties with members of the anglophone community, “the Other”:

The francophone community (...)  not only wanted to maintain and promote its own ethnic interests. It basically formed a “community within a community”. Therefore, it had to involve itself in all aspects of civic life. In addition, knowing that the worst threat to their rights as francophone and Catholics was the lack of information about their hopes, their customs, and their ideals, francophones were anxious to be known and understood by the bigger community.  But it was not always easy because there were nationalists on both sides. Weddings were without a doubt one of the best ways to bridge the gulf between the two populations.  The French-speaking Catholic clergy never stopped reminding people of the dangers of a wedding outside the francophone community: it feared the French language would disappear forever. Nevertheless, marriages between French-speaking men and English‑speaking women became common, particularly among the leaders of the community.49

Although it worked tirelessly to preserve the French Catholic identity, the elite was unsuccesful in mitigating the results of the massive immigration at the end of the 19th century and during the first decade of the 20th century. Despite the efforts of “missionary-colonizing” priests and the colonization societies, French-Canadians did not immigrate in sufficient numbers in the Edmonton area.

Members of the francophone elite were also present in the NWT Assembly where they tried to once again secure their rights but they were too few in number to have a chance of success. In 1898, Frédéric Villeneuve was the representative for the Riding of St. Albert in Regina. At the municipal level, J.H. Picard was alderman. Both representatives would make sure the francophone interests were recognized.

Residences on Victoria Avenue50
Many francophones, members of the town’s elite, lived on or near Victoria Avenue:51 G.H.L. Bossange lived on the east side of Fourth Street (104 street) south of Jasper Avenue near Victoria Avenue; Dr. Philippe Roy resided at the northwest corner of Fourth Street (104 Street) and Victoria Avenue.

In front, at the southwest corner of Fourth Street (104 Street) and Victoria Avenue, one found the newly-built house of J.-H. Picard; George Roy’s residence was at the northeast corner of Fifth Street (105 Street) and Victoria Avenue; on the west side of Fifth Street (105 Street), near Victoria Avenue, Adolphe Clavet (one of the owners of Marks, Clavet & Dobie) resided; and at the northwest corner of Fifth Street (105 street) and Victoria Avenue lived the contractor A.F. Dégagné.

South and west of Victoria Avenue, on Fifth Street (105 Street), Jules Royal’s residence was built; Antonio Prince lived on the northeast corner of Sixth Street (106 Street) and Victoria Avenue. Raphael Duplessis lived at the southwest corner of Sixth Street (106 Street) and Victoria Avenue. The Saint-Jean-Baptiste Society Hall was on Third Street (103 Street) on the west side, between Jasper Avenue and Victoria Avenue.

Even some members of the English-speaking elite lived near Victoria Avenue: J.T. Blowey, James McDonald, Thomas Bellamy, E.A. Braithwaite, Frank Oliver, John McDougall, and Herbert Lake lived near St. Joachim Church and rubbed elbows daily with francophones outside working hours.

At the beginning of the 20th century, certain members of the French-Canadian elite left the region for good. Such was the case for Frédéric Villeneuve, the editor-in-chief of the newspaper L’Ouest Canadien and Jean-Baptiste Morin, the colonizing priest. Both left for Montreal. Dr. Philippe Roy was named Senator and he left for Ottawa. Jos Bougie, a carpenter, went back east in November 1898.52

Despite the increasing attacks on their rights, the lack of outside help, and the low numbers of French-speaking immigrants who came to live in the Edmonton region — if one compares to the total amount of immigrants for this period — some families did come during that era and their descendants still speak French today. Did they have the choice to stay or to leave? Did they have regrets? Would they have done better elsewhere? These questions are not easy to answer. But until recently, one could hear French in these communities around Edmonton where francophones settled: St. Albert, Beaumont, Morinville, and Legal. It is indicative of the vitality of the francophone community in the Edmonton region.

Edmonton’s businesses53
Many francophones owned businesses in Edmonton and advertised in both newspapers, L’Ouest Canadien and the Edmonton Bulletin.

G.H.L. Bossange owned a bookstore in the Heiminck Building on Jasper Avenue. Since  1893, Miss Elizabeth Charbonneau owned a clothing boutique near the Jacques-Cartier Bank on Jasper Avenue.54 Napoléon Leclerc had a butcher shop next to the Imperial Bank on Jasper Avenue. Three general stores were well-established in Edmonton and were managed by francophones: Gariépy & Chénier;55 Marks, Clavet & Dobie;56 and Larue & Picard. The latter was located on the south side of Jasper Avenue near what is now MacDonald Place.57

In 1893, Mr. Stanislaus Larue and Mr. Joseph-Henri Picard had a new green and gold sign installed; it was described by the Edmonton Bulletin as “a handsome swinging sign in green and gold, (with) a green maple leaf, a beaver in gold, and Larue & Picard in gold letters”.58 In addition to their sign, Larue & Picard had a “delivery cart” in the same colours built by  Raphaël Duplessis and painted by Félix Renaud.

Among other francophones with businesses on or near Jasper Avenue, there was Eudore Voyer, an agent with the Singer Company. He also sold insurance. Désiré Rivest was a barber and owned a business near Jacques-Cartier Bank. Mrs. Lechambre was a baker and her store was located in front MacDougall & Secord. Raphaël Duplessis59 built boats and rowboats for Klondikers. Mr. Rivard and Mr. Duhamel had a recruiting office. Jos Bougie sold and repaired horse-drawn buggies, and his workshop was at the corner of Queen Street (99 Street) and Jasper Avenue, behind Stovel & Strang.

Many francophone clerks worked in francophone businesses: Joseph Bilodeau and J.T. Labissionnière were clerks at Larue & Picard; Authime Charbonneau, Armand Manson, and Joseph Derome were employed as printers with L’Ouest Canadien newspaper. Prosper-Edmond Lessard60 and H. Grégoire were clerks at Gariépy & Chénier; Henri Leteruson was a stablehand with the General Hospital.

Service in French
Many Francophones worked in English-speaking businesses and were able to offer service in French : Mastaï Bertrand, a “Klondyker who had decided to stay in Edmonton”61, worked for the Edmonton Saddlery Co. and was responsible for selling and repairing saddles. Brothers S. and G. Corriveau62 were tinsmiths for Ross Brothers general store. F.D. Fortin had a bookstore at the start of the 1890s. Later, he left Edmonton for San Francisco and came back November, 1897 to work for McDougall & Secord, the biggest general store in Edmonton.

Louis Garon was a clerk with Stovel & Strang hardware. Baptiste Deschamps worked for the Hudson Bay Company; Louis Larocque worked at the Hudson Bay Company; Henri Morel was a clerk for the J.T. Blowey furniture store. Finally, J. Charbonneau was a horse-carriage driver with Gallagher63.

Self-employed Francophones
Some Francophones living in Edmonton were self-employed64: Luc Authier65, Émile Duplessis, Napoléon Pomerleau, Gilles Pelletier, and Ernest Bérubé were all carpenters. Édouard Delorme, George Chalifoux, Alex Laboucane, and Antoine Bourgeois were day labourers. Moïse Brunelle was a stablehand. Albert Brunelle and Noël Delorme were horse-carriage drivers. M. Decoraux resold meat.

Adolphe Poirier, Arthur Bourchier, and Alex Delorme worked as miners. Arthur Demars was a tinsmith. Félix Dumont was a trapper. Onézime Huot was a plasterer. M. Perreault was a painter and Bélanie St-Germain was a brick layer66.

English-speaking businessmen
Some English-speaking businesses were tied to the francophone community. In fact, certain English-speaking businessmen wanted to advertise in the French-speaking L’Ouest Canadien to attract French-speaking clientele: Tom Cairney, a blacksmith with  Edmonton Cartage, owned by the stables of Matt McCauley and Isaac Cowie, a land agent, provide examples. Many pioneers would come to see Mr. Cowie to get details about the riches of the region.

Two butchers were competing against each other: Cornelius Gallagher67 sold pigs to individuals and was the owner of Gallagher Block while W.S. Edmiston had a business known as Edmonton Pork Packing that would purchase pigs from farmers and resell them to butchers and restaurants. It is interesting to note that both businessmen were mayors of Edmonton.

G.H. Graydon was the owner of a drugstore that sold goods to Klondikers. Doctor J.D Harrison, who worked at the General Hospital, had a cabinet near the Imperial Bank on Jasper Avenue. J.L. Johnson & Co., a hardware store specializing in paint and barbed wire, also advertised in L’Ouest Canadien.68 Frederic Fitzgerald owned a tobacco and newspaper shop while John F. Forbes was an accountant. Forbes’s office was on the second floor of the Post Office. The advertisement he published also mentioned that he was a “broker in customs and real estate”.69 Finally, Edmonton had a dentist, M. Herbert Lake, who lived near St-Joachim’s church. He had recently arrived from Toronto and his business was in the Taylor Block.

According to the advertisement, Leroy & Kelly, builders of buggies and owners of a business near the firehall on Fraser Avenue, were first and foremost carpenters and they were also able to shoe horses.70 McIntosh & Whitelaw had a double vocation: they sold furniture and also ran a funeral home.71 George Dyer was an agent for the New York Life Insurances. There was also a performance hall called Robertson’s Hall, whose owner was Neville White, also in charge of the Queen’s Hotel. In addition of finding good cigars, it was possible to bowl at Stokes & Co. Philip Wagner was a tailor and sold men’s suits. Manchester House sold dry goods. All advertised in the French-speaking newspaper L’Ouest Canadien.

Household servants
For young girls, being a household servant was considered an honourable occupation in those days. Many English-speaking families lived near members of the francophone elite and vice-versa.72 For example, Elizabeth Schlitt was Mrs. Clavet’s servant; Mr. Clavet was the manager of Marks, Clavet & Dobie. Jane White was a servant with the Larues, while Sarah Brunette was Mrs Brown’s servant.73 Anna Juneau was a servant with Mrs. Prince, wife of Antonio Prince, the famous lawyer. Ernestine Rocque lived with Mrs. W. T. Henry whose husband would partner later with J. T. Blowey to form a furniture store, Henry Blowey. Finally, Miss Jessie Segers lived with Mrs Fortin, wife of F. D. Fortin, a clerk with McDougall & Secord.

Edmonton, a pleasing town
Despite its small population, Edmonton had a lot to offer: a train to service it, many utilities, an enviable geographic location on high land next to the North Saskatchewan River. Edmonton boasted many businesses that provided to the needs of a growing population.

From 1898, many new businesses originated because of the Klondike. Jasper Avenue became busier and busier, and the commercial district had to be enlarged through the creation of more roads perpendicular to Jasper Avenue (e.g., Fraser Street off Queens Street).

According to Lowe’s Directory, all Edmonton needed was a aqueduct: “All that is required now is an efficient water works system, and this, with the excellent waters of the Saskatchewan close at hand should only be a question of time.”74

To conclude, here is what the Henderson Directory wrote about Edmonton in its 1899 edition:

The town is built on the northern bank of the Saskatchewan River, and the view is simply perfect. The main business thoroughfare (Jasper Avenue) runs east to west, parallel with the river, and a minute’s walk to the edge of its banks, at once discloses a lovely panoramic view. The river at this point is about 200 yards wide and lies about 200 feet below the town level. Looking across in a south-westerly direction the town of Strathcona (late South Edmonton) is visible on the opposite bank, and the piers of the new bridge, the superstucture of which is now in course of erection and due to be finished during the present autumn, can plainly be seen. The importance of this bridge to Edmonton can hardly be overrated, and its completion will be hailed with general satisfaction.75

01 MacGregor, Edmonton: a History, p. 126.
02 Henderson Directory, 1899.
03 MacGregor, Op. Cit., p. 121.
04 At that time, Calgary was more populated than Edmonton, mostly because of the railway, which had arrived in 1883.
05 Henderson Directory 1899.
06 It should be noted that not all French-speaking families were living within St. Joachim’s parish. For example, the Larue Family was living on the northeast part of Jasper Avenue, near the Fire Hall.
07 This total would comprise 195 French-Canadians, 9 French, 2 Belgians, 1 Swiss, and 175 French-speaking Metis.
08 Hart, Ambitions et réalités : la communauté francophone d’Edmonton 1795-1935, p. 19.
09 Hesketh, Bob and  Frances Swyripa, Edmonton, the life of a city, p. 58.
10 A resident of Edmonton-South; John Walter managed a ferry that everyone could use to get from Edmonton-South to Edmonton. He became the city’s first millionaire but lost most of his money following an important flooding some years later.
11 L’Ouest Canadien 10.03.98:3.
12 L’Ouest Canadien 10.02.98:4.
13 MacGregor, Edmonton Trader, p. 203.
14 L’Ouest Canadien 03.02.98:3.
15 Jean-Baptiste Morin, La terre promise aux Canadiens-français, p. 22.
16 The distance from Montreal to Calgary by train is approximately 2500 miles, which would mean $25.00.
17 MacGregor, Klondike Rush Through Edmonton, p. 16.
18 See Annex 1.
19 Historical Walking Tours of Downtown Edmonton, p. 4.
20 MacGregor, Edmonton Trader, pp. 204-5.
21 In September 1898, a new three-storey building was to be built at that location.
22 Trottier, Journal d’un missionnaire-colonisateur, p. xiii.
23 Eloi DeGrâce, L’Ouest Canadien : historique et index (1898-1900), p. 21.
24 Edmonton Bulletin 20.05.97:1.
25 Lowe’s Directory 1895.
26 Edmonton Bulletin 31.12.94:1.
27 L’Ouest Canadien 03.02.98:1.
28 Edmonton Bulletin, 30.06.98:2.
29 Ibidem.
30 L’Ouest Canadien 23.06.98:2. et 31.05.99:2.
31 L’Ouest Canadien 07.09.99:2.
32 L’Ouest Canadien 07.09.99:3.
33 L’Ouest Canadien 02.11.99:3.
34 Edmonton Bulletin16.07.00:1.
35 It is at this hotel that the Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier stayed in September 1905, during the province’s inauguration
36 Hart, Op. Cit. p. 8.
37 Who will decide to leave for the Klondyke; information taken from L’Ouest Canadien, 21.04.98:3.
38 The hotel was built in the building housing the new offices of the newspaper L’Ouest Canadien when it moved in September 1899.
39 Hart, Op. Cit. p. 22.
40 Lowe’s Directory 1895.
41 Included in this total: 195 French-Canadians, 9 French, 2 Belgians, 1 Swiss and 175 French-speaking Métis
42 Translation of Denise Stocco, Op. Cit. p. 52.
43 L’Ouest Canadien 10.02.98:3.
44 Hart, Op. Cit. p. 23.
45 Translated from Allaire, Trottier et Munro, Aspects du passé franco-albertain: Témoignages et études, p. 95
46 Hart, Op. Cit. p. 47.
47 L’Ouest Canadien 30.06.98:1.
48 L’Ouest Canadien 30.06.98:3.
49 Translation of Hart, Op. Cit p. 56.
50 Please refer to Annex 2, map of St. Joachim’s parish
51 All the information is taken from Lowe’s Directory, pp. 43 to 55.
52 Edmonton Bulletin 17.11.98:1.
53 See Annex 2.
54 In 1897, Miss Charbonneau lived with Jos Chénier, of Gariépy & Chénier; in December 1899, the company was dissolved and became Gariépy & Brosseau; Mr. Chénier resumed his commercial activities as the owner of Miss Charbonneau’s boutique; he sold, among other things, general goods and feminine undergarments. Ultimately, the couple Chénier-Charbonneau married on February 2, 1900.
55 Joseph-Hormidas Gariépy who, in addition to having many business partners (Gariépy & Chénier, Gariépy & Brosseau, Gariépy & Lessard), had the Gariépy Building built in front of the Imperial Bank, at the corner of Jasper Avenue and McDougall Street (100 Street); Jos Chénier became the second vice-président of the St.Jean.Baptiste Society of Edmonton in 1897.
56 The manager of this branch was a Francophone from Ontario, Adolphe Clavet.
57 The initials L & P can be seen on the cement, in front of where the store used to be.
58 Edmonton Bulletin 22.06.93:1.
59 The same that had built Larue & Picard’s delivery cart
60 He would later become co-owner when the business changed its name to Gariépy & Lessard.
61 L’Ouest Canadien 21.04.98:3.
62 Godfrey Corriveau would own a bicycle repair shop in 1899.
63 Lowe’s Directory.
64 It was sometimes difficult to get information on their employer.
65 Contractor with Alex Dégagné; they were responsible for the building of the McIntosh & Whitelaw store; information from L’Ouest Canadien 03.02.98:3.
66 Lowe’s Directory.
67 Gallagher was linked to the newspaper L’Ouest Canadien and the francophone community in many ways: the first office of the newspaper was located in the Gallagher Block, owned by Cornelius Gallagher; one of the newspaper’s printers was Authime Charbonneau, father of J. Charbonneau, horsedrawn buggy driver with Gallagher.
68 L’Ouest Canadien 16.06.98:3.
69 L’Ouest Canadien 03.02.98:3.
70 L’Ouest Canadien 31.03.98:3.
71 Henderson Directory.
72 Henderson Directory, 1899.
73 Mrs. Brown’s husband was a grocer with Brown & Currie.
74 Lowe’s Directory.
75 Henderson Directory 1895.

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