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Surface Irrigation

To irrigate means to water crops by moving water through pipes or ditches to where it is needed. Surface irrigation includes four types of irrigation. What these irrigation methods have in common are that they all use gravity and the field itself to direct and distribute the water. When water is applied to the field, it flows across the entire field, this could happen directly or by an indirect way. Regardless, all of paths made for the water flow are completed.

Water from the irrigation may run off the field or pond on its surface. The time between the end of the advance and when the inflow is cut off is called the wetting or ponding phase. After application of the water has stopped the remaining water will either run off or soak into the field.