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Electronic communications laws

The EU's electronic communications policy improves competition, drives innovation, and boosts consumer rights within the European single market.

EU actions in the electronic communications field have led to greater consumer choice, falling phone bills and higher standards of service. The main laws and actions related to electronic communications are:  

The European Electronic Communications Code Directive's main provisions are: 

  • clear rules: the same rules will apply all over Europe;
  • higher quality of services: the Code will foster competition for investments, in particular in very high capacity networks such as 5G networks, meaning higher connection speeds and better coverage;
  • consumer protection: the Code will benefit and protect consumers, irrespective of whether end-users communicate through traditional means such as calls and SMS, or web-based services;
  • equality of treatmentof all players in the telecom services sector: whether traditional or web-based, the Code will clarify the definition of electronic communication services.

Key Directives and Regulations


The telecoms market is not always sufficient to generate growth, protect consumers and ensure a level playing field for new companies in the telecoms sector.

The European Commission regulates the market in order to counterbalance the significant market power of former monopolies, to ensure universal service and to protect consumers.

The Commission's aim is to contribute to the timely and consistent implementation of the telecoms rules by:


The Commission has the power to launch infringement proceedings against any Member State that fails to comply with EU telecoms laws and regulations. If necessary, the Commission may refer the case to the Court of Justice of the European Union. In the majority of infringement cases, Member States comply with their obligations under EU law before they are referred to the Court.

Any person or organisation may send a complaint to the European Commission against a Member State they consider to have taken measures incompatible with EU law. The Commission first tries to solve the issue with a Member State bilaterally. If the problem is not solved, the Commission can decide to open infringement proceedings.

Infringement proceedings can be launched following Article 258 or Article 260 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).

For non-conformity issues, the infringement proceedings consist of the following steps:

  1. A "Letter of Formal Notice" to the Member State concerned, which must generally be answered within two months.
  2. If the Commission is not satisfied with the response given by the Member State, the Commission can send a formal request to comply with EU Law (a "Reasoned Opinion"), calling on the Member State to inform the Commission of the measures taken to comply with the rules within two months.
  3. If a Member State fails to ensure compliance with EU law, the Commission may then decide to refer the Member State to the Court of Justice following Article 258 TFEU. The Court of Justice will then issue a judgment.
  4. If, despite the Court's judgment, a Member State still fails to act in order to comply with the judgement, the Commission may open a further infringement case with only one written warning before referring the Member State back to Court under Article 260 TFEU.
  5. If the Commission refers a Member State to Court for a second time it may propose financial penalties on the Member State concerned based on the duration and severity of the infringement and the Member State’s ability to pay (both lump sum depending on the time elapsed since the original Court ruling and a daily penalty payment for each day after a second ruling until the infringement ends).

Under article 260(3) TFEU, when a Member State fails to inform the European Commission of the new legislation transposing a directive, financial penalties are proposed with the first referral to Court.

Judgments of the Court are binding on all EU Member States as well as on the EU institutions themselves.

The Secretariat General, which coordinates the Commission's work on the application of Community law, provides general details on infringement proceedings.


The Commission urges Poland to comply with EU rules on electronic communications networks and services

The Commission sent today a reasoned opinion to Poland for breaching EU law safeguarding the independence of the national regulatory authority (NRA), a key principle of the EU's telecom law. More specifically, the legal provisions amending the Polish Telecommunications Law that resulted in the early termination of the mandate of the Head of the Polish NRA – the Office for electronic communications, raise concern.

Commission opens infringement procedures against 24 Member States for not transposing new EU telecom rules

The Commission has opened infringement procedures against 24 Member States for failing to enact new EU telecom rules. The European Electronic Communications Code modernises the European regulatory framework for electronic communications, to enhance consumers' choices and rights, for example by ensuring clearer contracts, quality of services, and competitive markets. The Code also ensures higher standards of communication services, including more efficient and accessible emergency communications.

New EU telecom rules: latest actions in time for transposition deadline

21 December marked the deadline for Member States to transpose the new EU telecom rules into national law. The European Electronic Communications Code, which entered into force in December 2018, modernises the European regulatory framework for electronic communications, to enhance consumer's choices and rights, ensure higher standards of communication services, as well as boost investment for more connectivity and more digital innovation.

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Big Picture


The EU’s goal is for Europe to be the most connected continent by 2030.

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