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Bacon, Jacqueline. "Descendents of Africa, Sons of '76: Exploring Early African-American Rhetoric." Rhetoric Society Quarterly 36, no. 1 (Winter 2006): 1-29.

Bethel, Elizabeth. The Roots of African-American Identity: Memory and History in the Antebellum Free Communities. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.

Gravely, William B. "The Dialectic of Double-Consciousness in Black American Freedom Celebrations, 1808-1863." Journal of Negro History 67 (Winter 1982): 302-17.

Kachun, Mitchell A. Festivals of Freedom: Memory and Meaning in African American Emancipation Celebrations, 1808-1915. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2003.

Sinha, Manisha. "To 'cast just obliquy' on Oppressors: Black Radicalism in the Age of Revolution." William and Mary Quarterly 64, no. 1 (January 2007): 149-60.