Numbered Treaties between the Government and the Aboriginal Peoples
across Canada were important during the time of the cross Canada
railroad. These numbered treaties were signed over 1871 to 1921. First
Nations peoples who signed were resettled on reserves, and had
agreements for schooling, agricultural equipment, gifts, and yearly
payments. The government got access to the resources of the land, and
was able to build a railway.
Before the numbered treaties, agreements called Peace and Friendship
treaties had been a way of keeping peaceful relationships between the
First Nations and the settlers coming to Canada.
Not all First Nations were involved in signing treaties at the time.
The Inuit were not involved until much later. First Nations groups in
British Columbia and around James Bay were not asked. The Métis people
land claims were also ignored until much later even though the Northwest
Rebellion had been about their land and settlement rights.