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Unlike many other immigrant groups that have made Canada their adoptive homeland, the Croatian peoples did not arrive in Alberta or Canada as a part of the huge wave of settlers at the turn of the century. At that time, Canada's immigration policy deemed the Croatians, as well as Italians, Serbians and Bulgarians as undesirable immigrants.

Despite their ill-gotten label as "undesirables" however, Croatian communities did begin to form in the province around 1905 particularly in the Peace River and Coal Branch districts. These early Croatian settlements would be followed by others in Edmonton, Taber, Lethbridge, and Fairview. The early Croatian communities were largely comprised of single men that had taken up positions in the local coal mines or set up homesteads for themselves to farm.  By the end of World War I there were few Croatians in Canada and fewer women and families, as the men struggled to make a living in order to send money back to their families in the homeland.  

During the mid-1920s, the Canadian economy began to grow and this spurred on the need for an increased labour force. This resulted in an opening of the immigration policy which allowed for an increase of Croatian immigration to Canada. Croatian communities were established in such places as Calgary, were there exists a strong Croatian community even today. The end of the depression of the 1930s witnessed another influx of Croatians to Canada. These new arrivals tended to bring with them more education and skills than had their predecessors and, as a result, were provided with better, more lucrative and permanent positions. The availability of better paying jobs also allowed for the immigration of more women and children coming to Canada to join their fathers and reunite their families.  

Many Croatians have been active in developing cultural groups and community events that sustain their language, culture, and religion. Many Croatians in Alberta are Roman Catholic, and in such places as Edmonton and Calgary there is a Croatian Roman Catholic parish. The Croatian community has also organized soccer clubs, schools and radio programs to encourage their cultural traditions. 

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