Rural Conditions and Trends:
Volume 7, Number 1
Rural Industry Issue
Editors: Linda Ghelfi lghelfi@ERS.USDA.gov
and Doug Bowers dbowers@ERS.USDA.gov
Rural Economy Division.
Rural industries continue to fare well as the national economy grows following the 1990-91 recession. Employment in most rural industries increased in the early 1990's. The exceptions were farm and mining employment, which fell, and employment in finance, insurance, and real estate, which held steady. Overall, rural job growth has outpaced urban growth. The earnings gap between urban and rural jobs narrowed in 1993 for the first time since 1979, suggesting that rural earnings may at least be starting to hold their own relative to urban earnings. Population in rural areas has also rebounded as migration from urban to rural locations has overtaken rural-urban migration. The national economy's slower growth during 1995 may have affected rural areas less than urban because of strong exports and durable goods manufacturing, both of which are important to rural areas.
These trends are a change from the 1980's when urban areas held a clear advantage in job, earnings, and population growth. Coming off a prosperous decade in the 1970's, rural areas in the 1980's suffered from the 1980-81 recessions, foreign competition in manufacturing and agriculture, and a farm financial crisis which reduced land values and forced many highly leveraged farmers out of business.
This issue of Rural Conditions and Trends provides detailed information on rural industries. Some of the articles include information on value of production, productivity, or value of exports, adding to our understanding of employment conditions in rural industries. The articles report on current trends in farm-related industries, mining, manufacturing, retailing, banking, and government. Additional articles discuss recent changes in the general economy which affect rural areas and the significance of international trade to rural areas.
(This issue was released in July 1996.)
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Top of Page
- Front Matter (contents, summary, introduction), 11 kb
- Overview: National Growth Continues to Benefit Rural Industries, 15 kb
- National Economic Conditions and Trends: Economic Growth Moderates in 1995, 19 kb
- National Economic Conditions and Trends: Service Industries Expected to Dominate 1994-2005 Job Growth, 15 kb
- Agriculture: Farm and Farm-Related Industries Provided a Quarter of Nonmetro Jobs in 1992, 52 kb
- Agriculture: The Food and Fiber System Remains an Important Source of Rural Employment Despite Declining Farm Employment, 195 kb
- Agriculture: Agricultural Exports and the Rural Economy in the 1990's, 208 kb
- Mining: Rural Mines Increase Productivity, Decrease Employment, 34 kb
- Manufacturing: Manufacturing Jobs Continue to Shift to Nonmetro Areas in 1993, 36 kb
- Retail Trade: Retail Industry Adds 98,000 Nonmetro Jobs Annually During 1988-93, 24 kb
- Finance: Interstate Banking and Rural America, 29 kb
- Government: Government Plays Significant Role in Nonmetro Employment, 651 kb
- Appendix: Data Sources and Definitions, 17 kb
- Appendix Tables, 37 kb
Updated: October 31, 1996