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Endnotes


1 Paul Leicester Ford, Ed., The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (New York: GP Putnam & Sons, 1898).

2 March 18, 1946, Memorandum to the Secretary of State from William Benton, Assistant Secretary of State.

3 Milton Lehman, "We Must Sell America Abroad," Saturday Evening Post, November 15, 1947.

4 According to the USIA's 1993 mission statement, it is "an independent foreign affairs agency within the Executive Branch and is responsible for the U.S. government's overseas information, exchange, and cultural programs. Its director reports to the President and receives policy guidance from the Secretary of State. Under law, the purpose of USIA is to disseminate information abroad about the United States, its people, culture, and policies, and to conduct educational and cultural exchanges between the United States and other countries. (Fulbright-Hayes Act of 1961). USIA's programs include the VOA, now broadcasting worldwide in 49 languages, WORLDNET, the Fulbright scholarship, International Visitor and other educational exchange programs, the American Speakers Abroad program, publications translated in more than 15 languages, the Wireless File, and a network of overseas operations, including libraries and cultural centers."

5 RFE and RL, operated as separate entities in the early 1950s, were funded by the CIA until 1971. In 1973 they were consolidated under the Board for International Broadcasting, an independent federal agency. Although funded entirely by the U.S. government, RFE/RL was set up as a private, nonprofit company headquartered in Munich, Germany, and administered by the Board for International Broadcasting.

6 Kenneth L. Adelman, "Speaking of America: Public Diplomacy in our Time," Foreign Affairs, Spring 1981.

7 U.S. Information Agency, representing International Broadcast Operations for fiscal year (FY) 1994: VOA, $230.6 million (37.1%); WORLDNET, $23.9 million (3.8%); Radio Free Asia, $2.2 million (.4%); RFE/RL, $210 million (33.8%); TV Marti, $12.9 million (2.1%); Radio Marti, $17.7 million (2.8%); and VOA construction, $124 million (20%). The FY 1994 budget totaled $621.3 million. Numbers are based on the 1995 congressional submission including balances carried over from previous years.

8 Section 501 of the United States Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948, the Smith-Mundt Act, provides in pertinent part:

The Director [of USIA] is authorized . . . to provide for the preparation . . . and dissemination abroad, of information about the United States, its people, and its policies, through press, publication, radio, motion pictures, and other information media, and through information centers and instructors abroad. Any such information . . . shall not be disseminated within the United States, its territories, or possessions, but, on request, shall be available in the English language at the agency, at all reasonable times following its release as information abroad, for examination only by representatives of the United States press associations, newspapers, magazines, radio systems, and stations, and by research students and scholars, and on request, shall be made available for examination only to members of Congress.

9 Michael Gartner, "Making America's Voice a Little More Audible," The Wall Street Journal, November 2, 1989, p. A19.

10 Decision by United States District Court of the Southern District of Iowa, Central Division, Gartner v. United States Information Agency, October 12, 1989.

11 Ibid.

12 "Battle Lost in Advance," Soviet New Times, 1963.

13 The House Committee on Foreign Affairs was authorized by resolutions "to conduct thorough studies and investigations of all matters coming within the jurisdiction of the Committee." For further reading see House of Representatives reports: "The U.S. Ideological Effort: Government Agencies and Programs," January 3, 1964; "Ideological Operations and Foreign Policy," April 27, 1964; "Modern Communications and Foreign Policy," May 4, 1967; and "The Future of United States Public Diplomacy," November 2, 1968.

14 "The U.S. Ideological Effort: Government Agencies and Programs," a study prepared by the Legislative Reference Service, Library of Congress at the request of Dante B. Fascell, Chairman, Subcommittee on International Organizations and Movements, 1964.