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UW: Hutchins Commission papers, University of Washington archives (donated by Ruth Inglis).

ZC: Zechariah Chafee papers, Harvard Law School.

1 James W. Carey, "The Mass Media and Democracy: Between the Modern and the Postmodern," Journal of International Affairs 47 (summer 1993): 3.

2 Robert D. Leigh, ed., A Free and Responsible Press (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1947), iii.

3 Jerilyn S. McIntyre, "Repositioning a Landmark: The Hutchins Commission and Freedom of the Press," Critical Studies in Mass Communication 4 (1987): 154 n.3. Somewhat different accounts of the origins of the Commission can be found in Elie Abel, "Hutchins Revisited: Thirty-five Years of Social Responsibility Theory," in Robert Schmuhl, ed., The Responsibilities of Journalism (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1984), 39; Frank Hughes, Prejudice and the Press: A Restatement of the Principle of Freedom of the Press, with Specific Reference to the Hutchins-Luce Commission (New York: Devin-Adair, 1950), 21; Norman E. Isaacs, Untended Gates: The Mismanaged Press (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986), 100.

4 "About all we can say: Educator Robert M. Hutchins," Washington Post, 5/16/77, C3. "All alumni: Chicago Loses Its Boy Wonder," Life, 2/19/51.

5 Robert T. Elson, Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, 1923-1941 (New York: Atheneum, 1968), 4, 7, 7n. (capitalization omitted).

6 Harry S. Ashmore, Unseasonable Truths: The Life of Robert Maynard Hutchins (Boston: Little, Brown, 1989), 275-282; Robert T. Elson, The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, 1941-1960 (New York: Atheneum, 1973), 481; David Halberstam, The Powers That Be (New York: Knopf, 1979), 56, 63; Dana L. Thomas, The Media Moguls (New York: Putnam's, 1981), 130. "Time gives both sides": Elson, Time Inc., 1923-1941, 8. "His judgments were ad hoc": ibid., 89. "Very definite policy": Interview with Luce, 2/26/44, 2 (UW box 1, folder 1-45). "Show me a man": Michael Schudson, Discovering the News: A Social History of American Newspapers (New York: Basic, 1978), 149.

7 "Address to the Commissars," in John K. Jessup, ed., The Ideas of Henry Luce (New York: Atheneum, 1969), 35-43.

8 "The Future of Democracy: I," New Republic, 4/7/37, 255; Jessup, ed., Ideas of Henry Luce, 13; José Ortega y Gasset, The Revolt of the Masses (New York: Norton, 1932), 18.

9 Robert S. Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd, Middletown in Transition: A Study in Cultural Conflicts (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1937), 380 n.

10 Harold D. Lasswell, Propaganda Technique in the World War (New York: Knopf, 1927), 220; Lewis Perry, Intellectual Life in America: A History (New York: Franklin Watts, 1984), 358-359. "Astounding success," "sincere and gifted": Edward L. Bernays, Propaganda (New York: Horace Liveright, 1928), 27, 92. "Cure for propaganda": Sidney Blumenthal, The Permanent Campaign (New York: Touchstone, 1982), 42.

11 Nelson Antrim Crawford, The Ethics of Journalism (New York: Knopf, 1924), vii, 37; Robert S. Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd, Middletown: A Study in Contemporary American Culture (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1929), 471. "Democracy functions": Conference on the Press (Washington: Printing Corporation of America, 1931), 66.

12 James Bryce, Modern Democracies (New York: Macmillan, 1921), vol. 1, 103; Joseph T. Klapper, "What We Know About the Effects of Mass Communication: The Brink of Hope," Public Opinion Quarterly 21 (winter 1957-58): 456; Shearon Lowery and Melvin L. DeFleur, Milestones in Mass Communication Research: Media Effects (New York: Longman, 1983), 366-367; Charles Edward Merriam, The Making of Citizens: A Comparative Study of Methods of Civic Training (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1931), 267. "Mass of mimeographed junk": Henry Suydam, Washington correspondent, Brooklyn Eagle, in Conference on the Press, 69.

13 Will Irwin, The American Newspaper (Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1969) (reprinting 1911 articles), 7; H.L. Mencken, "Learning How to Blush," in A Gang of Pecksniffs (New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1975), 111.

14 Charles Fisher, The Columnists: A Surgical Survey (New York: Howell, Soskin, 1944), 210-248; Lynd and Lynd, Middletown in Transition, 378-379; Frank Luther Mott, American Journalism: A History, 1690-1960, 3d ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1962), 692; Schudson, Discovering the News, 150; Ronald Steel, Walter Lippmann and the American Century (New York: Little, Brown, 1980), 279-282.

15 Douglass Cater, The Fourth Branch of Government (New York: Vintage, 1965; orig. publ. 1959), 13; Lynd and Lynd, Middletown in Transition, 378; Merriam, Making of Citizens, 213; Michael E. Parrish, Anxious Decades: America in Prosperity and Depression, 1920-1941 (New York: Norton, 1992).

16 Charles E. Merriam, Political Power (New York: Collier, 1964; orig. publ. 1934), 189.

17 Donald T. Critchlow, The Brookings Institution, 1916-1952: Expertise and the Public Interest in a Democratic Society (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1985), 8-9; Thomas L. Haskell, The Emergence of Professional Social Science: The American Social Science Association and the Nineteenth-Century Crisis of Authority (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977); Michael J. Lacey, "The World of the Bureaus: Government and the Positivist Project in the Late Nineteenth Century," in Michael J. Lacey and Mary O. Furner, eds., The State and Social Investigation in Britain and the United States (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1993), 127-170; Perry, Intellectual Life in America, 347. "Vision of an objective": Thomas Bender, Intellect and Public Life: Essays on the Social History of Academic Intellectuals in the United States (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993), 49-50.

18 Michael J. Lacey and Mary O. Furner, "Social Investigation, Social Knowledge, and the State: An Introduction," in Lacey and Furner, eds., State and Social Investigation, 43; Perry, Intellectual Life in America, 350-351; President's Research Committee on Social Trends, Recent Social Trends in the United States (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1933), v, xi.

19 Critchlow, Brookings Institution, 130-135; James T. Patterson, Congressional Conservatism and the New Deal: The Growth of the Conservative Coalition in Congress, 1933-1939 (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1967), 214-229. "Every national crisis": Perry, Intellectual Life in America, 352 n.

20 "Popular rule": Lane Davis, "The Cost of Realism: Contemporary Restatements of Democracy," Western Political Quarterly 17 (1964): 37. Reporter without a deadline: Kenneth Stewart, News Is What We Make It: A Running Story of the Working Press (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1943), ix.

21 "Only way for a newspaperman": Stephen Bates, If No News, Send Rumors: Anecdotes of American Journalism (New York: St. Martin's, 1989), 91. "I believe that the people's will": Piers Brendon, The Life and Death of the Press Barons (New York: Atheneum, 1983), 200.

22 Elson, Time Inc., 1923-1941, 54; Leo C. Rosten, The Washington Correspondents (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1937), 300; Stewart, News Is What We Make It, 309-310.

23 William Greider, Who Will Tell the People: The Betrayal of American Democracy (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992), 291.

24 "Collapse of the traditional species," "modern reflections upon democracy": Lasswell, Propaganda Technique, 4-5. "Individual is a poor judge": Harold D. Lasswell, Psychopathology and Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977; orig. publ. 1930), 194.

25 Critchlow, Brookings Institution, 9; Edward A. Purcell, Jr., The Crisis of Democratic Theory: Scientific Naturalism and the Problem of Value (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1973), 103-104.

26 Ashmore, Unseasonable Truths, 272; "Commission to Make 2-Year Study of All Phases of Press Freedom," New York Times, 2/29/44; Mary Ann Dzuback, Robert M. Hutchins: Portrait of an Educator (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1991), 222; "4-Year Study Finds Free Press in Peril," New York Times, 3/27/47; Isaacs, Untended Gates, 100; McIntyre, "Repositioning a Landmark," 140.

27 Thomas Bender, New York Intellect: A History of Intellectual Life in New York City, from 1750 to the Beginnings of Our Own Time (New York: Knopf, 1987), 304-305; Barry D. Karl, Charles E. Merriam and the Study of Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974); "Harold D. Lasswell," Current Biography 1947, 375-377; "Robert D. Leigh," Current Biography 1947, 386-388; "Robert Redfield," Current Biography 1953, 511-512; "Beardsley Ruml," Current Biography 1943, 647-650; Philip Schuyler, "Press Freedom Probers Provocative Pundits," Editor & Publisher, 4/1/44, 16.

28 "Zechariah Chafee," Current Biography 1942, 141-143; "William Ernest Hocking," Current Biography 1962, 208-210. "That pervasive aspect": Donald L. Smith, Zechariah Chafee, Jr.: Defender of Liberty and Law (Cambridge, MA: Harvard, 1986), 1.

29 Scott Donaldson, Archibald MacLeish: An American Life (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992), ix; Bernard A. Drabeck and Helen E. Ellis, eds., Archibald MacLeish: Reflections (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1986), 175; Charles W. Dunn, ed., American Political Theology: Historical Perspective and Theoretical Analysis (New York: Praeger, 1984), 46; "Reinhold Niebuhr," Current Biography 1951, 456-458.

30 Margaret A. Blanchard, "The Hutchins Commission, the Press, and the Responsibility Concept," Journalism Monographs 49 (May 1977): 13; Arthur M. Schlesinger, Prelude to Independence: The Newspaper War on Britain, 1764-1776 (New York: Knopf, 1958); "George N. Shuster," Current Biography 1941, 791-792.

31 Donaldson, Archibald MacLeish, 348-65; Drabeck and Ellis, eds., Archibald MacLeish, 78; Elson, Time Inc., 1923-1941, 68; William H. MacLeish, "The Silver Whistler," Smithsonian (October 1983); Schuyler, "Press Freedom Probers," 54; Thomas, Media Moguls, 131; Current Biography entries for Hocking, Niebuhr, and Shuster.

32 "We all take our opinions": Ashmore, Unseasonable Truths, 145. "Informal and irresponsible House of Lords": Merriam, Making of Citizens, 213. "National policy in the next period": C.E. Merriam, "Government and Society," in President's Research Committee, Recent Social Trends, vol. 2, 1529. "Self-regulation must be strengthened": Schuyler, "Press Freedom Probers," 54. "Enemy, not of the government": Donaldson, Archibald MacLeish, 356.

33 McIntyre, "Repositioning a Landmark," 139; Steel, Walter Lippmann, 363-364. "Unwieldy," "adequate criticism of an activity": Robert Hutchins, statement released with Commission report, 3/27/47 (UW box 1, folder 1-43). "Newspaper business is so esoteric": Hughes, Prejudice and the Press, 34.

34 "Editors Welcome Time-Life Inquiry into Press Freedom," Editor & Publisher, 4/15/44, 9, 60.

35 "Commission to Make 2-Year Study of All Phases of Press Freedom," New York Times, 2/29/44.

36 "Text of Hutchins Speech Before Society of Newspaper Editors," New York Times, 4/22/55.

37 Morris L. Ernst, The First Freedom (New York: Macmillan, 1946), xii; Leigh, ed., Free and Responsible Press, 37; Mott, American Journalism, 636.

38 Simon Michael Bessie, Jazz Journalism: The Story of the Tabloid Newspapers (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1938), 218; Mott, American Journalism, 671-672. "All the news that isn't fit": Bessie, Jazz Journalism, 19.

39 "Does not care a hang": Peter Odegard, The American Public Mind (New York: Columbia University Press, 1930), 123. "The editor has no objection": Brendon, Life and Death of the Press Barons, 134.

40 Bryce, Modern Democracies, vol. 1, 97-98; anonymous [Drew Pearson and Robert Allen], Washington Merry-Go-Round (New York: Horace Liveright, 1931), 321-324; Rosten, Washington Correspondents,

41 "New Deal vote is an invitation": Brendon, Life and Death of the Press Barons, 192. "Neither hate nor praise": ibid., 198.

42 "A Fictitious Public Interest," Wall Street Journal, 1/20/25, 1.

43 Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy (New York: Harper & Bros., 1944), 48; Thomas Sancton, "The Negro Press," New Republic, 4/26/43, 557.

44 Boyce House, Cub Reporter (Dallas: Hightower Press, 1947); Phillip Knightley, The First Casualty (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975), 274; Graham J. White, FDR and the Press (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979), 17. "If I were writing": Daniel J. Boorstin, The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America (New York: Harper Colophon, 1964; orig. publ. 1962), 20.

45 "Let Freedom Ring True," Time, 3/31/47, 67.

46 Zechariah Chafee, Jr., Government and Mass Communications (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1947), vol. 1, 11.

47 Doc. 48, April 1945 conference, cited in Doc. 92, Affirmative Governmental Action to Encourage Better and More Extensive Communications, 48 (ZC 18.981). "Fundamental principle": Hocking memo, 8/1/45, 3, quoted in Doc. 84A, Report of Subcommittee on Relations of Government to Mass Communications, 3/4/46, 38 (ZC 18.911). "Government has final responsibility": Summary of discussions, 6/5/45-6/6/45, New York City, 51 (UW box 4, folder 66).

48 Doc. 48, cited in Doc. 92, 48 (ZC 18.981).

49 "Silence ... hostile voices": Doc. 92, 53 (ZC 18.986). "Only control": Chafee, Government and Mass Communications, vol. 2, 633-634.

50 Doc. 92, 48 (ZC 18.981).

51 Ibid.

52 Doc. 66, summary of discussions, 6/5/45-6/6/45, 49.

53 Ibid., 56.

54 "You make people responsible": ibid., 52. "Pernicious impression": Doc. 76, Report of the Sub-
committee on Untruth and Unfairness in the Press, 10/26/45, 5 (UW box 4, folder 76).

55 Doc. 76, minutes of meeting, 9/17/45-9/19/45, Chicago, 63 (UW, box 4, folder 76).

56 Ibid., 64.

57 "Like many other members": Chafee, Government and Mass Communications, vol. 2, 674-675. "Simple dogmas," "very helpful": Doc. 92, 50 (ZC 18.983). "Too much social control": Doc. 49, Niebuhr memo, quoted in ibid.

58 Doc. 66, 49.

59 McIntyre, "Repositioning a Landmark," 155 n.23. "Do not use coercion": Doc. 92, 39-40 (ZC 18.972-973).

60 Hilda M. Bryant, "A Free and Responsible Press: A Three-Year Inquiry: An Intellectual History of the Hutchins Commission Study of the American Press, 1943-1946," M.A. thesis, University of Washington, 1969, 76.

61 Ibid.

62 Ibid., 71-72. "Create that atmosphere of moderation": ibid., 72. "Say his say in print": McIntyre, "Repositioning a Landmark," 144.

63 Leigh, ed., Free and Responsible Press, 23, n.1. "If you make something a common carrier": Bryant, "Free and Responsible Press," 72. "We don't have a right to print": ibid., 59.

64 Doc. 48, quoted in Doc. 92, 42, 44-46 (ZC 18.975, 19.977-79).

65 Ibid., 42 (ZC 18.975); Leigh, ed., Free and Responsible Press, 84.

66 "It was unquestionably demonstrated": Chafee, Government and Mass Communications, vol. 1, 24.

67 Doc. 66, 56.

68 Doc. 76, quoted in Doc. 84A, 44-45 (ZC 18.917-18).

69 Doc. 84A, 47, 51 (ZC 18.920, 18.924); Leigh, ed., Free and Responsible Press, 87.

70 Doc. 84, Report of Subcommittee on Relations of Government to Mass Communications, 4 (ZC 18.876). "May very well be a serious invasion," "Seems free from constitutional objections": Doc. 84A, 32, 52 (ZC 18.905, 18.925).

71 Doc. 84A, 36 (ZC 18.909).

72 Leigh, ed., Free and Responsible Press, 86.

73 Roger Simpson, "'Our Single Remedy for All Ills': The History of the Idea of a National Press Council," American Journalism, forthcoming; Doc. 76, 5-7. "We ought to keep the government": Doc. 76, minutes, 9/17/45-9/19/45, 49.

74 "Governmental action against a newspaper": Doc. 75, September 1945 conference, quoted in Doc. 84A, 42 (ZC 18.915). "Papers would gang up": ibid., 41 (ZC 18.914). "Put a tremendous burden": Richard Wightman Fox, Reinhold Niebuhr: A Biography (New York: Pantheon, 1985), 221.

75 Mark Fackler, "Moral Guardians of the Movies and Social Responsibility of the Press: Two Movements Toward a Moral Center," in Catherine L. Covert and John D. Stevens, eds., Mass Media Between the Wars: Perceptions of Cultural Tension, 1918-1941 (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1984), 191.

76 Doc. 76, minutes, 24.

77 Ibid., 125.

78 Ibid., 126.

79 Robert D. Leigh, Proposal of a Continuing Citizens' Agency in the Field of Mass Communication, 10/29/45 (UW box 1, folder 1-50).

80 Ibid.

81 Ibid. "Professional experts": Doc. 76, minutes, 54.

82 Leigh, Proposal of a Continuing Citizens' Agency.

83 "Drop a seed to be taken up": Doc. 76, minutes, 126. "If the seed falls on fertile ground," "Assuming the report is favorably received": Jerilyn S. McIntyre, "The Hutchins Commission's Search for a Moral Framework," Journalism History 6 (summer 1979): 56, 63.

84 "Does it at all disturb": Doc. 76, minutes, 121.

85 Ibid., 121-122.

86 Ibid., 121.

87 McIntyre, "Repositioning a Landmark," 151.

88 Robert Maynard Hutchins, The Higher Learning in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1936), 43. "The kind of continuing and authoritative": Doc. 83, Archibald MacLeish, draft of general report, 1/21/46, 89 (UW box 4, folder 83). "Half-baked courses": McIntyre, "Hutchins Commission's Search for a Moral Framework," 56.

89 "Experience has proved": Doc. 76, 6.

90 MacLeish draft, 28. "Crude choice": Leigh, Proposal of a Continuing Citizens' Agency, 2-3.

91 "More tempting to the palate": Doc. 83, 62. "Plenty of reading matter": Doc. 76, 3.

92 "If the people will not buy": Bryant, "Free and Responsible Press," 89. "The public may not know": William Ernest Hocking, Freedom of the Press: A Framework of Principle (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1947), 198. "We have to ask the press": ibid., 199.

93 "Public will never live up": McIntyre, "Repositioning a Landmark," 147. "Mistaking themselves for citizens": Bryant, "Free and Responsible Press," 121.

94 "To me, it is quite clear": Doc. 76, minutes, 123. "Flaming document": McIntyre, "Repositioning a Landmark," 152-153.

95 Doc. 76, minutes, 107.

96 McIntyre, "Repositioning a Landmark," 153, 156 n.26. "Put in all of the time": Doc. 76, minutes, 120. "Element of indictment": McIntyre, "Repositioning a Landmark," 153.

97 Doc. 83, 64-66.

98 Ibid., 17, 30.

99 Bryant, "Free and Responsible Press," 130.

100 "We are so tender": ibid., 20. "At this point I could put in a page": Leigh, letter to Ruth Inglis, 11/13/46, 2 (UW box 1, folder 1-13).

101 Leigh letter to Inglis, 2-3.

102 "Some of the cautious language": Louis M. Lyons, "A Free and Responsible Press," in Lyons, ed., Reporting the News (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1965), 58 (originally published in Nieman Reports, April 1947). "It might still be incorrect": Herbert Solow, letter to Chafee, 2/20/48 (ZC 11.408). "Any sort of Log Rolling": Chafee, letter to Solow, 3/4/48 (ZC 11.406).

103 "Text of Hutchins Speech Before Society of Newspaper Editors," New York Times, 4/22/55. "Very fair, moderate statement": "Report Aimed Directly at Owners--Hutchins," Editor & Publisher, 3/29/47, 8.

104 Leigh, ed., Free and Responsible Press, v. The other studies, all published by the University of Chicago Press, were Chafee, Government and Mass Communications; Hocking, Freedom of the Press; Ruth A. Inglis, Freedom of the Movies (1947); Llewellyn White, The American Radio (1947); and Llewellyn White and Robert D. Leigh, Peoples Speaking to Peoples (1946).

105 Leigh, ed., Free and Responsible Press, viii.

106 Ibid., 1, 18-19, 106.

107 Ibid., 20-21, 91-92.

108 Ibid., 14-16.

109 Ibid., 11.

110 Ibid., 5 (footnote omitted), 80.

111 Ibid., 19, 131.

112 Ibid., 80-90.

113 Ibid., 90-96.

114 Ibid., 96-102.

115 Ibid., 100-102; Smith, Zechariah Chafee, 112.

116 Blanchard, "Hutchins Commission," 29; "Commission Asserts Press Menaces Itself," Editor & Publisher, 2/1/47, 62.

117 "The Commission Versus the Press," Public Opinion Quarterly 12 (spring 1948): 131; "4-Year Study Finds Free Press in Peril," New York Times, 3/27/47; Leigh, letter to Ruth Inglis, 2/14/47 (UW box 1, folder 1-16); "Leigh Reports Britannica Aid to Commission," Editor & Publisher, 4/6/46.

118 "Dangers to Press Freedom," Fortune, April 1947, 2.

119 Ibid., 4.

120 "A Free, Responsible Press," Christian Science Monitor, 3/27/47; "A Free and Responsible Press," New York Herald Tribune, 3/28/47; "Freedom and the Press," New York Times, 4/1/47; Walter Lippmann, "A Useful Contribution to Criticism of Press," Kansas City Star, 3/28/47. I am indebted to Margaret Blanchard's "The Hutchins Commission, the Press and the Responsibility Concept" for pointing the way to many of these articles.

121 "Free Means Free," Wall Street Journal, 4/7/47; "Let Freedom Ring True," Time, 3/31/47, 68; A.J. Liebling, "Some Reflections on the American Press," The Nation, 4/12/47; "The Press Is Indicted," Editor & Publisher, 3/29/47, 38; Frank Tripp, "The Movies Join the Press," Editor & Publisher, 3/29/47, 9. "Throws a pretty grim shadow": "Commission Report Under Fire Generally," Editor & Publisher, 4/5/47, 13. "Downright lie": "Free-for-all: Freedom of the Press," Fortune, June 1947, 40.

122 Frank Hughes, "'A Free Press' (Hitler Style) Sought for U.S.," Chicago Tribune, 3/27/47, 36B; Hughes, Prejudice and the Press, 62; "Free-for-all," Fortune, 24.

123 "Of a Free and Responsible Press," Journalism Quarterly 24 (June 1947): 188; Kenneth E. Olson, introduction to Hughes, Prejudice and the Press, x. "I believe we can serve": Dwight Bentel, "Journalism Educators Decry Lack of Facts," Editor & Publisher, 3/29/47, 59.

124 "Jury of saloonkeepers": "Free-for-all," Fortune, 24. "One in 10": "Forrest Says Report Helps Destroy Prestige of Press," Editor & Publisher, 3/29/47, 11. "11 professors": Jerry Walker, "'Press Fails to Meet Needs of Society,'" Editor & Publisher, 3/29/47, 7.

125 "Dialogue," Center Magazine, March-April 1987, 28.

126 Lippmann, "Useful Contribution"; "Discipline of Press by Public Is Seen," New York Times, 4/3/47; "The Press and Criticism," Los Angeles Times, 4/13/47; "The Press Is Indicted," Editor & Publisher, 3/29/47, 38.

127 "Philosophically uninteresting": Elson, World of Time Inc., 1941-1960, 79 n.5. "Most appalling lack," "crisis consists in the cheapening," "man is responsible to his Creator": "Critique of a Commission," in Jessup, ed., Ideas of Henry Luce, 61-69 (emphasis in original). "As to the general philosophical treatment": McIntyre, "Repositioning a Landmark," 156 n.27.

128 Ashmore, Unseasonable Truths, 294.

129 "Text of Hutchins Speech Before Society of Newspaper Editors," New York Times, 4/22/55.

130 Hazel Dicken-Garcia, Journalistic Standards in Nineteenth-Century America (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989), 186-187; Ernst, First Freedom; Harold L. Ickes, America's House of Lords: An Inquiry into the Freedom of the Press (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1939), ix, xi; Irwin, American Newspaper; Robert Lasch, "For a Free Press," Atlantic Monthly (July 1944): 39-44; Walter Lippmann, Public Opinion (New York: Free Press, 1965; orig. publ. 1922), 209 n. 1; Rosten, Washington Correspondents; George Seldes, Freedom of the Press (Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1935); Upton Sinclair, The Brass Check: A Study of American Journalism (Pasadena, CA: privately published, n.d. [1920]); Arthur Hays Sulzberger, "The Newspaper's Role in the Community," in The Newspaper: Its Making and Its Meaning (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1945), 182; Oswald Garrison Villard, The Disappearing Daily: Chapters in American Newspaper Evolution (New York: Knopf, 1944).

131 Blanchard, "Hutchins Commission," 3-10; John Hohenberg, Free Press/Free People: The Best Cause (New York: Columbia University Press), 277-278; Isaacs, Untended Gates, 103.

132 Bryant, "Free and Responsible Press," 33-34; "Commission Versus the Press," Public Opinion Quarterly, 135; McIntyre, "Repositioning a Landmark," 142; Philip Schuyler, "Press Freedom Commission Bars U.S. News Handling," Editor & Publisher, 2/2/46, 68.

133 Isaiah Berlin, Two Concepts of Liberty (Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon, 1958). Robert G. Picard links the Hutchins report to the Berlin theory in The Press and the Decline of Democracy: The Democratic Socialist Response in Public Policy (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1985), 39-40.

134 Bryant, "Free and Responsible Press," 93; Chafee, Government and Mass Communications, vol. 1, 18; "Report Aimed Directly at Owners--Hutchins," Editor & Publisher, 3/29/47, 8.

135 Simpson, "'Our Single Remedy.'"

136 Ibid.; Thomas C. Reeves, Freedom and the Foundation: The Fund for the Republic in the Era of McCarthyism (New York: Knopf, 1969), 92-93, 116.

137 "Dangers to Press Freedom," Fortune, April 1947, 5; "Press Responsibility," Washington Post, 3/30/47; "The Press Is Indicted," Editor & Publisher, 3/29/47, 38; "U.S. Press Hailed as Best in World," New York Times, 4/7/47.

138 Hannah Arendt, "Truth and Politics," in Peter Laslett and W.C. Runciman, eds., Philosophy, Politics, and Society, 3d series (Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell, 1967), 130; Bender, Intellect and Public Life, 63; Lippmann, Public Opinion, 236.

139 Hocking, Freedom of the Press, 207. "Through popular education": Bryant, "Free and Responsible Press," 89.

140 Leigh, ed., Free and Responsible Press, 97-101.

141 Ibid., 96.

142 Theodore Peterson, "The Social Responsibility Theory of the Press," in Fred S. Siebert, Theodore Peterson, and Wilbur Schramm, Four Theories of the Press (Urbana: University of Illinois, 1956), 100.

143 Ruth Inglis, memo to Leigh, 11/5/45 (UW, box 1, folder 1-23).

144 Hughes, Prejudice and the Press, 274.

145 Alfred Balk, A Free and Responsive Press (New York: Twentieth Century Fund, 1972); Patrick Brogan, Spiked: The Short Life and Death of the National News Council (New York: Priority, 1985).

146 Brogan, Spiked, 117; "Robert M. Hutchins, Long a Leader in Educational Change, Dies at 78," New York Times, 5/16/77, 48.

147 James D. Squires, Read All about It!: The Corporate Takeover of America's Newspapers (New York: Times Books, 1993), 209; Edwin Newman, "A Journalist's Responsibility," in Schmuhl, ed., Responsibilities of Journalism, 32; Jean-François Revel, The Flight from Truth: The Reign of Deceit in the Age of Information, trans. Curtis Cate (New York: Random House, 1991), 231-232.

148 Alfred Balk, "The Voluntary Model: Living with 'Public Watchdogs,'" in Everette E. Dennis, Donald M. Gillmor, and Theodore L. Glasser, eds., Media Freedom and Accountability (New York: Greenwood, 1989), 73; Lee C. Bollinger, Images of a Free Press (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), 135; Rodney A. Smolla, "Report of the Coalition for a New America: Platform Section on Communications Policy," University of Chicago Legal Forum (1993): 149-185.

149 Klapper, "What We Know About the Effects," 457; Christopher Lasch, The Revolt of the Elites and the Betrayal of Democracy (New York: Norton, 1995); E.E. Schattschneider, The Semisovereign People: A Realist's View of Democracy in America (Hinsdale, IL: Dryden, 1975; orig. publ. 1960), 131.

150 Daniel Patrick Moynihan, "The Presidency and the Press," Commentary (March 1971).

151 David S. Broder, "A Major Battle Press Must Win," Boston Globe, 6/7/79, 17.

152 "MacLeish Favors Free Criticism, but Not by Critics," Christian Century, 7/1/42, 829; Cokie Roberts, "Politics and the Press: Clashing Cultures," Theodore H. White Lecture, Joan Shorenstein Barone Center on Press, Politics, and Public Policy, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University (1994), 16.

153 Robert MacNeil, "The Mass Media and Public Trust," Gannett Center for Media Studies (1985).

154 David L. Protess, Fay Lomax Cook, Jack C. Doppelt, James S. Ettema, Margaret T. Gordon, Donna R. Leff, and Peter Miller, The Journalism of Outrage: Investigative Reporting and Agenda Building in America (New York: Guilford, 1991).

155 Ibid., 250.